2009 - 2000

2009


The new plant virus family Virgaviridae is described. The family is named because its members have rod-shaped virions (from the Latin virga = rod), and it includes the genera Furovirus, Hordeivirus, Pecluvirus, Pomovirus, Tobamovirus and Tobravirus . The chief characteristics of members of the family are presented with phylogenetic analyses of selected genes to support the creation of the family. Species demarcation criteria within the genera are examined and discussed.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 12 / December 2009, 1967 - 1972
 
The family Partitiviridae includes plant and fungal viruses with bisegmented dsRNA genomes and isometric virions in which the two genome segments are packaged separately and used as templates for semiconservative transcription by the viral polymerase. A new genus, Cryspovirus , has been approved for this family. Its name is based on that of the host genus, Cryptosporidium , which encompasses several species of apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide range of mammals, birds, and reptiles, and are a major cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide. The type species of the new genus is Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1 . Distinguishing characteristics include infection of a protozoan host, a smaller capsid protein than found in other members of the family Partitiviridae , and sequence-based phylogenetic divergence.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 12 / December 2009, 1959 - 1965
 
The Executive Committee (EC) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) held its 40th meeting at the Istanbul Convention and Exhibition Centre in Istanbul, Turkey, from August 7 to 9, 2008. This was just prior to the XIV International Congress of Virology (ICV), part of the joint meeting organized by the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS), also in Istanbul, Turkey, from August 11 to 15, 2008. Most of the EC meeting was concerned with the discussion of taxonomic proposals. This communication reports the principal items of business discussed at the meeting.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 9 / September 2009, 1571 - 1574
 
In accordance with the Statutes of the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the final stage in the process of making changes to the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification is the ratification of taxonomic proposals by ICTV Members. This can occur either at a Plenary meeting of ICTV, held during an International Congress of Virology meeting, or by circulation of proposals by mail followed by a ballot. Therefore, a list of proposals that had been subjected to the full, multi-stage review process was prepared and presented on the ICTVonline web pages in March 2008. This review process involved input from the ICTV Study Groups and Subcommittees, other interested virologists, and the ICTV Executive Committee. For the first time, the ratification process was performed entirely by email. The proposals were sent electronically via email on 18 March 2008 to ICTV Life Members (11), ICTV Subcommittee Members (74), and ICTV National Representatives (53).
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 7 / July 2009, 1181 - 1188
 
Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) have been identified from different dipteran species, such as the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV), the housefly Musca domestica (MdSGHV) and the narcissus bulbfly Merodon equestris (MeSGHV). These viruses share the following characteristics: (i) they produce non-occluded, enveloped, rod-shaped virions that measure 500–1,000 nm in length and 50–100 nm in diameter; (ii) they possess a large circular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome ranging in size from 120 to 190 kbp and having G + C ratios ranging from 28 to 44%; (iii) they cause overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in dipteran adults and partial to complete sterility. The available information on the complete genome sequence of GpSGHV and MdSGHV indicates significant co-linearity between the two viral genomes, whereas no co-linearity was observed with baculoviruses, ascoviruses, entomopoxviruses, iridoviruses and nudiviruses, other large invertebrate DNA viruses. The DNA polymerases encoded by the SGHVs are of the type B and closely related, but they are phylogenetically distant from DNA polymerases encoded by other large dsDNA viruses. The great majority of SGHV ORFs could not be assigned by sequence comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes clustered both SGHVs, but distantly from the nudiviruses and baculoviruses. On the basis of the available morphological, (patho)biological, genomic and phylogenetic data, we propose that the two viruses are members of a new virus family named Hytrosaviridae. This proposed family currently comprises two unassigned species, G. pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus and M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, and a tentative unassigned species, M. equestris salivary gland hypertrophy virus. Here, we present the characteristics and the justification for establishing this new virus family.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 6 / June 2009, 909 - 918
 
The order Picornavirales includes several plant viruses that are currently classified into the families Comoviridae (genera Comovirus , Fabavirus and Nepovirus ) and Sequiviridae (genera Sequivirus and Waikavirus ) and into the unassigned genera Cheravirus and Sadwavirus . These viruses share properties in common with other picornavirales (particle structure, positive-strand RNA genome with a polyprotein expression strategy, a common replication block including type III helicase, a 3C-like cysteine proteinase and type I RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). However, they also share unique properties that distinguish them from other picornavirales. They infect plants and use specialized proteins or protein domains to move through their host. In phylogenetic analysis based on their replication proteins, these viruses form a separate distinct lineage within the picornavirales branch. To recognize these common properties at the taxonomic level, we propose to create a new family termed “Secoviridae” to include the genera Comovirus , Fabavirus , Nepovirus , Cheravirus , Sadwavirus , Sequivirus and Waikavirus . Two newly discovered plant viruses share common properties with members of the proposed family Secoviridae but have distinct specific genomic organizations. In phylogenetic reconstructions, they form a separate sub-branch within the Secoviridae lineage. We propose to create a new genus termed Torradovirus (type species, Tomato torrado virus) and to assign this genus to the proposed family Secoviridae.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 5 / May 2009, 899 - 907
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 4 / April 2009, 731 - 732
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 3 / March 2009, 545 - 546
 
The family Totiviridae comprises viruses with nonsegmented dsRNA genomes and isometric virions. A new genus, Victorivirus, has been approved for this family, named from the specific epithet of Helminthosporium victoriae, host of the type species, Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S. Distinguishing characteristics of the 11 viruses so far assigned to this genus include infection of filamentous fungi, an apparently coupled termination–reinitiation mechanism for translating the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase as a separate product from the upstream capsid protein, and sequence-based phylogenetic grouping in a distinct clade from other family members. 
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 2 / February 2009, 373 - 379
 
The taxonomy of herpesviruses has been updated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The former family Herpesviridae has been split into three families, which have been incorporated into the new order Herpesvirales. The revised family Herpesviridae retains the mammal, bird and reptile viruses, the new family Alloherpesviridae incorporates the fish and frog viruses, and the new family Malacoherpesviridae contains a bivalve virus. Three new genera have been created in the family Herpesviridae, namely Proboscivirus in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae and Macavirus and Percavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. These genera have been formed by the transfer of species from established genera and the erection of new species, and other new species have been added to some of the established genera. In addition, the names of some nonhuman primate virus species have been changed. The family Alloherpesviridae has been populated by transfer of the genus Ictalurivirus and addition of the new species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3. The family Malacoherpesviridae incorporates the new genus Ostreavirus containing the new species Ostreid herpesvirus 1.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 1 / January 2009, 171 - 177
 
Rotavirus was present in 1,367 of 7,060 stool samples (19.4%) collected in Gyeonggi province of South Korea from 2003 through 2005. The predominant genotypes were confirmed as G4/P2A (19.0%) followed by G3/P1A (15.6%), G2/P1B[4] (9.3%), and G1/P1A (6.5%). The predominant types of rotavirus by year were G3/P in 2003, G4/P in 2004, and G1/Pin 2005. The prevalent rotavirus genotypes changed constantly from 2003 to 2005.
Archives of Virology, Volume 154, Number 1 / January 2009, 167 - 170
 

2008


Recently, a classification system was proposed for rotaviruses in which all the 11 genomic RNA segments are used (Matthijnssens et al. in J Virol 82:3204–3219, 2008). Based on nucleotide identity cut-off percentages, different genotypes were defined for each genome segment. A nomenclature for the comparison of complete rotavirus genomes was considered in which the notations Gx-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx are used for the VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 encoding genes, respectively. This classification system is an extension of the previously applied genotype-based system which made use of the rotavirus gene segments encoding VP4, VP7, VP6, and NSP4. In order to assign rotavirus strains to one of the established genotypes or a new genotype, a standard procedure is proposed in this report. As more human and animal rotavirus genomes will be completely sequenced, new genotypes for each of the 11 gene segments may be identified. A Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG) including specialists in molecular virology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and public health was formed, which can assist in the appropriate delineation of new genotypes, thus avoiding duplications and helping minimize errors. Scientists discovering a potentially new rotavirus genotype for any of the 11 gene segments are invited to send the novel sequence to the RCWG, where the sequence will be analyzed, and a new nomenclature will be advised as appropriate. The RCWG will update the list of classified strains regularly and make this accessible on a website. Close collaboration with the Study Group Reoviridae of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses will be maintained. 
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 8 / August 2008, 1621 - 1629
 
An infectious cDNA clone of a Norwegian isolate of Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV) was generated. It consisted of 6,098 nucleotides and encoded a polyprotein of 219.5 kDa. Sequence comparisons indicated that this isolate shared 98.6% (nucleotide) and 97.1% (amino acid) identity with the previously sequenced isolate from Germany. RNA transcripts derived from this cDNA were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, plants did not present typical PnMV symptoms. Furthermore, RNA transcripts from this cDNA clone were not infectious in poinsettia. Serial propagation of this cDNA clone in N. benthamiana plants restored symptom induction in this host but did not re-establish infectivity in poinsettia. 
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 7 / July 2008, 1347 - 1351
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 7 / July 2008, 1207 - 1208
 
The existence of infectious agents smaller than bacteria was demonstrated already during the 1890s. After this discovery it took more than 50 years before a resilient definition of viruses could be given. There were separate developments of knowledge concerning plant viruses, bacterial viruses and animal viruses. In the mid-1930s, Wendell Stanley at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research at Princeton described the purification and crystallization of tobacco mosaic virus. The finding of an “infectious protein” led to him receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. In studies initiated at the end of the 1930s, bacteriophages were used as a model for replicating genes. They led to important insights into the unique characteristics of virus-cell interactions. However, an understanding of the chemical nature of animal virus particles and their mode of replication was slow in coming. Not until the early 1950s did tissue culture techniques become available, which allowed studies also of an extended number of animal viruses. This article discusses the emergence of concepts which eventually allowed a description of viruses. The unique real-time analyses of the state of knowledge provided by the Nobel Prize archives were used in the investigation. These archives remain secret for 50 years. Besides all of the underlying documents of the Prize to Stanley, comprehensive investigations made in the mid 1950s of Seymour E. Cohen, Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador D. Luria (the latter three received a Prize in Medicine in 1969) and of André Lwoff (he shared a Prize in Medicine with Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod in 1965) were reviewed. The final phase of the evolution of our understanding of the virus concept closely paralleled the eventual insight into the chemical nature of the genetic material. Understanding the principle nature of barriers to the development of new concepts is of timeless value for fostering and facilitating new discoveries in science.
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 6 / June 2008, 1109 - 1123
 
This study constitutes the first evaluation and application of quantitative taxonomy to the family Caulimoviridae and the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the family Caulimoviridae that integrates the common origin between LTR retrotransposons and caulimoviruses. The phylogenetic trees and PASC analyses derived from the full genome and from the corresponding partial RT concurred, providing strong support for the current genus classification based mainly on genome organisation and use of partial RT sequence as a molecular marker. The PASC distributions obtained are multimodal, making it possible to distinguish between genus, species and strain. The taxonomy of badnaviruses infecting banana (Musa spp.) was clarified, and the consequence of endogenous badnaviruses on the genetic diversity and evolution of caulimoviruses is discussed. The use of LTR retrotransposons as outgroups reveals a structured bipolar topology separating the genus Badnavirus from the other genera. Badnaviruses appear to be the most recent genus, with the genus Tungrovirus in an intermediary position. This structuring intersects the one established by genomic and biological properties and allows us to make a correlation between phylogeny and biogeography. The variability shown between members of the family Caulimoviridae is in a similiar range to that reported within other DNA and RNA plant virus families.
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 6 / June 2008, 1085 - 1102
 
Geminivirus taxonomy and nomenclature is growing in complexity with the number of genomic sequences deposited in sequence databases. Taxonomic and nomenclatural updates are published at regular intervals (Fauquet et al. in Arch Virol 145:1743–1761, 2000, Arch Virol 148:405–421, 2003). A system to standardize virus names, and corresponding guidelines, has been proposed (Fauquet et al. in Arch Virol 145:1743–1761, 2000). This system is now followed by a large number of geminivirologists in the world, making geminivirus nomenclature more transparent and useful. In 2003, due to difficulties inherent in species identification, the ICTV Geminiviridae Study Group proposed new species demarcation criteria, the most important of which being an 89% nucleotide (nt) identity threshold between full-length DNA-A component nucleotide sequences for begomovirus species. This threshold has been utilised since with general satisfaction. More recently, an article has been published to clarify the terminology used to describe virus entities below the species level [5]. The present publication is proposing demarcation criteria and guidelines to classify and name geminiviruses below the species level. Using the Clustal V algorithm (DNAStar MegAlign software), the distribution of pairwise sequence comparisons, for pairs of sequences below the species taxonomic level, identified two peaks: one at 85–94% nt identity that is proposed to correspond to “strain” comparisons and one at 92–100% identity that corresponds to “variant” comparisons. Guidelines for descriptors for each of these levels are proposed to standardize nomenclature under the species level. In this publication we review the status of geminivirus species and strain demarcation as well as providing updated isolate descriptors for a total of 672 begomovirus isolates. As a consequence, we have revised the status of some virus isolates to classify them as “strains”, whereas several others previously classified as “strains” have been upgraded to “species”. In all other respects, the classification system has remained robust, and we therefore propose to continue using it. An updated list of all geminivirus isolates and a phylogenetic tree with one representative isolate per species are provided. 
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 4 / April 2008, 783 - 821
 
The symptom-modulating, single-stranded DNA satellites (known as DNA-ß) associated with begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) have proven to be widespread and important components of a large number of plant diseases across the Old World. Since they were first identified in 2000, over 260 full-length sequences (~1,360 nucleotides) have been deposited with databases, and this number increases daily. This has highlighted the need for a standardised, concise and unambiguous nomenclature for these components, as well as a meaningful and robust classification system. Pairwise comparisons of all available full-length DNA-ß sequences indicate that the minimum numbers of pairs occur at a sequence identity of 78%, which we propose as the species demarcation threshold for a distinct DNA-ß. This threshold value divides the presently known DNA-ß sequences into 51 distinct satellite species. In addition, we propose a naming convention for the satellites that is based upon the system already in use for geminiviruses. This maintains, whenever possible, the association with the helper begomovirus, the disease symptoms and the host plant and provides a logical and consistent system for referring to already recognised and newly identified satellites. 
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 4 / April 2008, 763 - 781
 
Despite the apparent natural grouping of “picorna-like” viruses, the taxonomical significance of this putative “supergroup” was never addressed adequately. We recently proposed to the ICTV that an order should be created and named Picornavirales, to include viruses infecting eukaryotes that share similar properties: (i) a positive-sense RNA genome, usually with a 5'-bound VPg and 3'-polyadenylated, (ii) genome translation into autoproteolytically processed polyprotein(s), (iii) capsid proteins organized in a module containing three related jelly-roll domains which form small icosahedral, non-enveloped particles with a pseudo-T = 3 symmetry, and (iv) a three-domain module containing a superfamily III helicase, a (cysteine) proteinase with a chymotrypsin-like fold and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. According to the above criteria, the order Picornavirales includes the families Picornaviridae, Comoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Marnaviridae, Sequiviridae and the unassigned genera Cheravirus, Iflavirus and Sadwavirus. Other taxa of “picorna-like” viruses, e.g. Potyviridae, Caliciviridae, Hypoviridae, do not conform to several of the above criteria and are more remotely related: therefore they are not being proposed as members of the new order. Newly described viruses, not yet assigned to an existing taxon by ICTV, may belong to the proposed order.
Archives of Virology, Volume 153, Number 4 / April 2008, 715 - 727
 

2007


The genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae) was known both for a good level of homogeneity and for the presence of atypical members. In particular, the atypical members of the genus differed by the number of capsid protein (CP) subunits. While typical nepoviruses have a single CP subunit with three structural domains, atypical nepoviruses have either three small CP subunits, probably corresponding to the three individual domains, or a large and a small subunit, probably containing two and one structural domains, respectively. These differences are corroborated by hierarchical clustering based on sequences derived from both genomic RNAs. Therefore, these atypical viruses are now classified in two distinct genera, Cheravirus (three CP subunits; type species Cherry rasp leaf virus) and Sadwavirus (two CP subunits; type species Satsuma dwarf virus).
Archives of Virology, Volume 152, Number 9 / September 2007, 1767 - 1774
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 152, Number 3 / March 2007, 649 - 653
 

2006


Without Abstract
Archives of Virology, Volume 151, Number 12 / December 2006, 2547 - 2548
 
We propose that the formal definition of a virus species by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) should be broadened by removing the restrictive word “polythetic” from the current definition, so that any characters can be used to define species. This change will bring the definition of virus species into line with the species definitions of cellular organisms and broaden the range of characters available for describing virus species.
Archives of Virology, Volume 151, Number 7 / July 2006, 1419 - 1422
 
Recent evidence from genome sequence analyses demands a substantial revision of the taxonomy and classification of the family Baculoviridae. Comparisons of 29 baculovirus genomes indicated that baculovirus phylogeny followed the classification of the hosts more closely than morphological traits that have previously been used for classification of this virus family. On this basis, dipteran- and hymenopteran-specific nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) should be separated from lepidopteran-specific NPVs and accommodated into different genera. We propose a new classification and nomenclature for the genera within the baculovirus family. According to this proposal the updated classification should include four genera: Alphabaculovirus (lepidopteran-specific NPV), Betabaculovirus (lepidopteran-specific Granuloviruses), Gammabaculovirus (hymenopteran-specific NPV) and Deltabaculovirus (dipteran-specific NPV).
Archives of Virology, Volume 151, Number 7 / July 2006, 1257 - 1266
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 151, Number 6 / June 2006, 1249 - 1250
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 151, Number 2 / February 2006, 413 - 422
 

2005


Geminivirus taxonomy and nomenclature is increasing in complexity with time, and the growing number of geminivirus sequences deposited in gene banks requires regular taxonomic updates and calls for new descriptors to identify virus isolates unambiguously. Fauquet et al. [1] proposed a system to standardize the names of the viruses, and corresponding guidelines have been followed since, rendering nomenclature much easier. Recently, due to difficulties inherent in species identification, the ICTV Geminiviridae Study Group proposed new species demarcation criteria, the most important of which being an 89% identity threshold between complete DNA-A component nucleotide sequences of begomoviruses. This threshold has been utilised since with general satisfaction. In this paper, we review the status of geminivirus species demarcation and nomenclature for a total of 389 isolates. A small number of corrections have been made to comply with the adopted demarcation criteria but otherwise the classification system has remained robust and therefore we propose to continue using it. However, the large numbers of geminivirus sequences that have become available have led us to recognize the need for a better description of virus isolates. The pairwise comparison distribution below the taxonomic level of species identified two peaks, one at 90–91% identity that may correspond to “strains” and one at 96–98% identity that may correspond to “variants”. Guidelines for descriptors for each of these levels are proposed to standardize nomenclature. As a consequence, we have revisited the status of some virus isolates to elevate them to “strains”. An updated list of all geminivirus isolates currently available is provided.
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 10 / October 2005, 2151 - 2179
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Patricia Ann Webb (1925-2005)
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 6 / June 2005, 1268 - 1270
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 5 / May 2005, 1045 - 1046
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Jean Cohen (1941-2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 4 / April 2005, 840 - 840
 
Obituary: In Memoriam William C. Reeves (1916-2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 4 / April 2005, 841 - 843
 
ICTV Meetings at the International Congress of Virology, San Francisco
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 4 / April 2005, 844 - 844
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 3 / March 2005, 629 - 635
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Guido Boccardo (1944–2002)
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 2 / February 2005, 412 - 413
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 2 / February 2005, 407 - 411
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Fred Brown (1925–2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 1 / January 2005, 199 - 200
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 150, Number 1 / January 2005, 189 - 198
 

2004


Obituary: In Memoriam Peter Hans Hofschneider (1929–2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 12 / December 2004, 2473 - 2474
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Michael Patrick Kiley (1942–2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 7 / July 2004, 1467 - 1468
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Jordi Casals-Ariet (1911–2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 6 / June 2004, 1264 - 1266
 
Report from the 33rd Meeting of the ICTV Executive Committee
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 6 / June 2004, 1259 - 1263
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Robert Ellis Shope (1929–2004)
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 5 / May 2004, 1061 - 1066
 
Summary: The new plant virus family Flexiviridae is described. The family is named because its members have flexuous virions and it includes the existing genera Allexivirus, Capillovirus, Carlavirus, Foveavirus, Potexvirus, Trichovirus and Vitivirus, plus the new genus Mandarivirus together with some related viruses not assigned to any genus. The family is justified from phylogenetic analyses of the polymerase and coat protein (CP) sequences. To help to define suitable molecular criteria for demarcation of species, a complete set of pairwise comparisons was made using the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences of each fully-sequenced gene from every available accession in the family. Based on the distributions and on inspection of the data, it was concluded that, as a general rule, distinct species have less than ca. 72% identical nt or 80% identical aa between their entire CP or replication protein genes.
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 5 / May 2004, 1045 - 1060
 
ICTV Executive Committee meeting
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 3 / March 2004, 652 - 652
 

2003


Obituary: In Memoriam David Christopher Kelly CMG (1944–2003)
Archives of Virology, Volume 149, Number 1 / August 2003, 211 - 213
 
Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 12 / December 2003, 2481 - 2488
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Rudolf Rott (1926–2003)
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 12 / January 2003, 2489 - 2491
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 8 / August 2003, 1645 - 1653
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Harold S. Ginsberg (1917-2003)
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 8 / August 2003, 1655 - 1657
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 6 / May 2003, 1235 - 1246
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 3 / February 2003, 612 - 612
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 3 / February 2003, 609 - 611
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Yasuhiro Hosaka (1931-2002)
Archives of Virology, Volume 148, Number 1 / January 2003, 207 - 208
 

2002


Obituary: In Memoriam Andreas Scheid (1941-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 12 / November 2002, 2473 - 2474
 
  The revised International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature [7] followed by the Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [9] have generated a lot of criticism [2,4–6]. The main causes of criticism are (i) use of monomials instead of non-latinized binomials, as has been practice for some time in the past, e.g., tobacco mosaic tobamovirus, tobacco ringspot nepovirus etc. (ii) in toto italicization of official virus names. Following the expression of different views among virologists on this issue, it is being debated and an opportunity has been provided for reconsideration of the revised ICTV code [1,8,10]. This note attempts to analyse the existing critisms being raised and justifies the continuation of the present ICTV code.
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 11 / October 2002, 2251 - 2253
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 11 / October 2002, 2247 - 2250
 
Summary:    Recently obtained molecular and biological information has prompted the revision of the taxonomic structure of the family Closteroviridae. In particular, mealybug-transmitted species have been separated from the genus Closterovirus and accommodated in a new genus named Ampelovirus (from ampelos, Greek for grapevine). Thus, the family now comprises three genera. Their major properties are (i) Closterovirus: type species Beet yellows virus, genome monopartite, 15.5–19.3?kb in size, a 22–25 kDa major coat protein (CP), the gene encoding the divergent CP analogue (CPd) upstream of the CP cistron, transmission by aphids, a membership of 8 definitive and 4 tentative species; (ii) Ampelo-virus: type species Grapevine leafroll virus 3, genome monopartite 16.9–19.5?kb in size, a 35–37?kDa major CP, a CPd cistron generally located downstream of the CP gene, transmission by pseudococcid and coccid mealybugs, a membership of 6 definitive and 5 tentative species; (iii) Crinivirus: type species Lettuce infectious yellows virus, genome essentially bipartite 15.3–19?kb in size, a 28–33?kDa CP, a CPd cistron downstream of the CP gene, transmission by whiteflies (Bemisia, Trialeurodes), a membership of 7 definitive and 3 tentative species. There are five unassigned species in the family.
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 10 / September 2002, 2039 - 2044
 
Summary:    Maculavirus is a new genus of plant viruses typified by Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV). A possible second member is Grapevine redglobe virus (GRGV). Maculaviruses are phloem-limited non-mechanically transmissible viruses with isometric particles c. 30 nm in diameter that have a rounded contour and prominent surface structure. Vectors, if any, are unknown. GFkV preparations contain two centrifugal components, T made up of empty protein shells and B, which contains 35% RNA. The coat protein (CP) has a molecular mass of 24 kDa. The genome is a single-stranded RNA that has c. 50% cytosine residues. It is 7564 nt in size, excluding the poly(A) tail and contains four putative open reading frames (ORF) that encode a 215.4 kDa polypeptide with the conserved motifs of replication-associated proteins of positive-strand RNA viruses (ORF1), the CP (ORF2), and one (GRGV) or two (GFkV) proline-rich polyproteins of 31.4 kDa (ORF3) and 15.9 kDa (ORF4), respectively, with unknown function. Replication-associated proteins and CP are phylogenetically related to those of members of the genera Tymovirus and Marafivirus. GFkV-infected grapevine cells contain vesiculated mitochondria, the possible site of RNA replication. In the natural host, GFkV particles accumulate in great quantity, sometimes in crystalline arrays in phloem cells.
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 9 / September 2002, 1847 - 1853
 
Summary:   The family Tymoviridae comprises the genus Tymovirus, from which it derives its name, the genus Marafivirus and the newly established genus Maculavirus. Members of the family share the following characteristics: (i) non-enveloped isometric particles c. 30 um in diameter, with a rounded contour and prominent surface structures, and clustering of coat protein subunits in pentamers and hexamers; (ii) the presence in preparations of purified virus particles of two centrifugal components, made up of non-infectious protein shells (T) that may contain small amounts of RNA (primarily subgenomic coat protein mRNA) and of infectious nucleoproteins (B), that contain the virus genome; (iii) possession of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome with an unusually high cytidine content (32 to c. 50%), capped at the 5' terminus and containing a very large ORF encodes replication-related proteins analogous to those of other taxa of the "alpha-like" supergroup of ssRNA viruses; (iv) a replication strategy possibly encompassing posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide encoded by ORF1 by a papain-like virus-encoded protease, and coat protein expression via a subgenomic RNA; (v) the presence in infected cells of cytopathic structures, thought to be the sites of RNA replication, originating from severely altered chloroplasts and/or mitochondria, the periphery of which is lined with vesicles produced by the localized invaginations of the bounding membrane. There are 23, 4, and 2 known species in the genera Tymovirus, Marafivirus and Maculavirus, respectively. The genus Marafivirus also contains one tentative species.
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 9 / September 2002, 1837 - 1846
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 8 / August 2002, 1655 - 1656
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Don Summers (1934-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 8 / August 2002, 1662 - 1663
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 7 / July 2002, 1471 - 1477
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 7 / July 2002, 1465 - 1470
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 7 / July 2002, 1463 - 1464
 
ICTV Plenary Session
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 7 / July 2002, 1462 - 1462
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 6 / June 2002, 1271 - 1274
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 5 / May 2002, 1071 - 1076
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Robert R. Wagner (1923-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 4 / April 2002, 871 - 873
 
The American Herpes Foundation Research Awards - Presented at the Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 2 / February 2002, 445 - 445
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Fred Rapp (1929-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 147, Number 1 / January 2002, 225 - 227
 

2001


Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 12 / December 2001, 2493 - 2495
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 11 / November 2001, 2255 - 2261
 
Fifth Annual Conference on Vaccine Research, Baltimore, Maryland, May 6-8, 2002
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 10 / October 2001, 2053 - 2053
 
International Course on Laboratory Animal Science, May 27 - June 7, 2002, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 8 / August 2001, 1641 - 1641
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 8 / August 2001, 1637 - 1640
 
Fifth International Conference of the Hospital Infection Society, 15-18 September 2002, Edinburgh, U.K.
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 6 / June 2001, 1239 - 1239
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Pekka Eljas Halonen (1927-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 5 / May 2001, 1047 - 1050
 
Obituary: In Memoriam Joseph Louis Melnick (1914-2001)
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 3 / March 2001, 629 - 631
 
Archives of Virology, Volume 146, Number 1 / January 2001, 189 - 194
 

2000


ICTV and the Virology Division News
A recent critique of some aspects of the affairs of the International Committee on Taxono- my of Viruses (ICTV) suggests that the link between ICTV and the papers that appear in Virology Division News (VDN) concerning virus taxonomy is unclear. This note is intended to clarify this link and also to illustrate how it has operated in the last several years.
Archives of Virology, Volume 145, Number 9 / September 2000, 1985 - 1988