Genus: Grablovirus

Genus: Grablovirus

Distinguishing features

The monopartite 3.2 kb genome of grapevine red blotch virus is significantly longer than those of other monopartite geminiviruses, which range from 2.7 to 3.0 kb. Its genomic organization is unlike that of other geminiviruses, with virion and complementary sense ORFs that have no homologues in members of the other genera in the family.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

The genome of grapevine red blotch virus has three ORFs in the virion sense strand (V1, V2, and V3) and three in the complementary sense strand (C1, C2, and C3) (Figure 1.Grablovirus). By analogy with mastreviruses, the C1 and C2 ORFs likely encode the replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, and RepA is encoded from the unspliced C1 transcript (Krenz et al., 2014). C3 is entirely embedded in the C1 ORF in the same reading frame. Based on its position in the genome and sequence identity with other geminiviruses, the V1 ORF is predicted to encode the grablovirus coat protein. Likewise, by analogy with other geminiviruses, the V2 and V3 ORFs may encode movement proteins (Sudarshana et al., 2015). Grabloviruses have the v-ori nonanucleotide motif TAATATTAC.

Figure 1.Grablovirus. Genomic organization of grabloviruses. ORFs are denoted as being encoded on the virion-sense (V) or complementary-sense (C) strand, and corresponding protein products are indicated where these are known. The position of the stem-loop containing the conserved TAATATTAC sequence located in the large intergenic region (LIR) is shown. An intron (open box) is predicted to occur at the overlap between ORFs C1 and C2. CP, coat protein; MP, movement protein; Rep, replication-associated protein; SIR, short intergenic region.


Host range

Grapevine red blotch virus is known to infect only Vitis vinifera (grapevine).


The three-cornered alfalfa treehopper, Spissistilus festinus (Hemiptera: Membracidae), is capable of both acquiring the virus from infected grapevines and transmitting the virus to grapevines in the laboratory (Bahder et al., 2016).

Species demarcation criteria 

Nucleotide sequence identity: isolates sharing <80% genome-wide pairwise identity with members of grablovirus species should be classified as members of a distinct species. This is a tentative species demarcation criterion that will need to be reassessed as additional grablovirus sequences become available.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Grapevine red blotch virusGrapevine red blotch virus456]17NOV2010/2010JQ901105Complete genomeGRBV
Prunus latent virusPrunus geminivirus APL4MF510408NC_043533Complete genomePrLV
Wild Vitis latent viruswild Vitis virus 1WVV1-NY1298MF185002Complete genomeWvLV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.