Pleolipoviridae - v201911


Pleolipoviridae - v201911

Dennis H. Bamford, Maija K. Pietilä, Elina Roine, Nina S. Atanasova​, Ana Dienstbier and Hanna M. Oksanen

Chapter contents

Posted December 2017

Pleolipoviridae: The family

Member taxa

Supporting information

  • Authors - corresponding authors: Hanna M. Oksanen (hanna.oksanen@helsinki.fi) & Dennis H. Bamford (dennis.bamford@helsinki.fi)
  • Further reading - reviews and additional information
  • References

Citation

A summary of this ICTV Report chapter has been published as an ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile article in the Journal of General Virology, and should be cited when referencing this online chapter as follows:

Bamford, D.H., Pietilä, M.K., Roine, E., Atanasova, N.S., Dienstbier, A., Oksanen, H.M., and ICTV Report Consortium, 2017, ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae, Journal of General Virology, 98: 29162917.

Summary

Members of family Pleolipoviridae (termed pleolipoviruses) are pseudo-spherical and pleomorphic archaeal viruses with a membrane vesicle enclosing different types of DNA genomes of approximately 7 to 16 kilonucleotides or kbp. Typically, virions contain a single type of spike protein at the envelope and a single type of internal membrane protein embedded in the envelope. All viruses infect extremely halophilic archaea in the class Halobacteria (phylum Euryarchaeota). Pleolipoviruses have a narrow host range and a persistent, non-lytic life cycle.

Table 1.Pleolipoviridae. Characteristics of the family Pleolipoviridae.

Characteristic

Description

Typical member

Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (FJ685651), species Halorubrum virus HRPV1, genus Alphapleolipovirus

Virion

Enveloped, pseudo-spherical and pleomorphic, virions (diameters 40 – 70 nm), typically with a single type of spike protein at the envelope and a single type of internal membrane protein species embedded in the envelope

Genome

Circular ssDNA, circular dsDNA or linear dsDNA, approximately 7 – 16 kilonucleotides or kbp

Replication

Possibly rolling circle replication for circular genomes; protein primed replication for linear genomes

Translation

Prokaryotic translation using viral mRNA and host ribosomes

Host Range

Archaea, euryarchaeal Halorubrum, Haloarcula or Halogeometricum strains

Taxonomy

Three genera Alphapleolipovirus, Betapleolipovirus and Gammapleolipovirus

Virion

Morphology

Virions consist of a genome surrounded by a pleomorphic membrane vesicle of 40 - 70 nm in diameter with irregularly distributed spike structures (Pietilä et al., 2009, Pietilä et al., 2012) (Figure 1.Pleolipoviridae). Virions lack a capsid or a nucleocapsid structure. There are two to four types of major structural protein forming the spikes or associating with the membrane as internal membrane proteins. The spikes are formed of one or two types of membrane-anchored protein species. The spike protein is anchored to the lipid membrane with a C-terminal transmembrane domain domain (Pietilä et al., 2010, Senčilo et al., 2012). The internal membrane proteins (either one or two types) are located in the inner side of the membrane vesicle.

Figure 1.Pleolipoviridae. Morphology of pleolipovirus virions. (A) Electron micrograph of negatively stained Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 particles. (B) A close-up of one Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 virion. The arrows point to the spike structures covering the particle surface. Reproduced with permission from Pietilä et al., 2010. Scale bars in A and B, 50 nm (C) Schematic presentation of the pleolipovirus virion.

Physicochemical and physical properties

Virions are typically very stable at high ionic strengths (e.g. above 2.5 M NaCl) and are inactivated in the absence of NaCl with some exceptions. Virion buoyant densities in CsCl are from 1.26 to 1.34 g cm-3. Infectivity is sensitive to detergents and the organic solvent chloroform. Virions are stable at temperatures below 60 °C.

Nucleic acid

Members of family Pleolipoviridae have different types of DNA genomes (Senčilo et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010). Genomes are circular single-stranded DNA of approximately 7.0-10.7 kilonucleotides, circular double-stranded DNA of approximately 8.1-9.7 kbp, or linear double-stranded DNA of approximately 16 kbp (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae). The genomes of pleolipoviruses share little similarity with each other at the nucleotide sequence level. Members of Alphapleolipovirus have either single-stranded or double-stranded circular DNA genomes. Genomes of members of the genus Betapleolipovirus are circular double-stranded DNA molecules with single-stranded discontinuities, and the linear genome of the only member of the genus Gammapleolipovirus contains inverted terminal repeat sequences and terminal proteins attached to the genome ends.

Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae. A linear representation of pleolipovirus genomes. All genomes are circular except the His2 genome, which is a linear molecule. The genomes are either single-stranded (Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 2 (HHPV-2), Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 6 (HRPV-6), Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 2 (HRPV-2) and Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1) or double-stranded DNA molecules (Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 (HHPV-1), Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 3 (HRPV-3), Halogeometricum pleomorphic virus 1 (HGPV-1) and His2 virus (His2)), although the HRPV-3 and HGPV-1 genomes have stretches of ssDNA. The directionality of the genes/ORFs is indicated by arrows. The identities (%) between the amino acid sequences of pairs of predicted (or identified) gene products are indicated. Based on the genome organization and the relatedness of the VP3-like proteins (homologous with HRPV-1 VP3 protein), the members of the Pleolipoviridae can be divided into three genera, which are indicated on the left. Modified from (Pietilä et al., 2016) with permission of Springer.

Proteins

The genomes have from 8 to 35 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), of which 2-4 have been shown to code for structural proteins and the rest have unknown functions or predicted function based on sequence similarity. Virions contain one or two types of internal membrane protein, with several predicted transmembrane regions, and one or two types of spike protein, which are processed during maturation. The non-structural proteins of the members of the genus Alphapleolipovirus include putative rolling circle replication initiation proteins (RCR Reps) and members of the genus Gammapleolipovirus encode a putative type B DNA polymerase (Pietilä et al., 2009, Roine et al., 2010, Bath et al., 2006Senčilo et al., 2012).

Lipids

The lipids are derived from host cell membranes. Viral lipid species composition is similar to that of the host archaeon. Lipids form the sole outer layer of the virion with virus-specific spike and internal membrane proteins. Details of the lipid species composition are given in the corresponding sections of the genera.

Carbohydrates

Virions can contain carbohydrates in the form of glycolipids. The spike protein of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1) is N-glycosylated (Kandiba et al., 2012).

Genome organization and replication

The genes encoding the two major structural proteins and a putative NTPase belong to a cluster of five genes/ORFs (genes 3, 4 and 8; ORFs 6 and 7 of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1) that are collinear and conserved among members of the family Pleolipoviridae (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae; (Senčilo et al., 2012).  Pleolipoviruses have non-lytic life cycles. Although there is no direct evidence for the entry mechanism, it has been proposed that the entry of pleolipoviral genomes occurs by membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell cytoplasmic membrane (Pietilä et al., 2009). Viruses are predicted to employ different genome replication strategies, including rolling circle replication (RCR; circular genomes) and protein-primed replication carried out by family B-type polymerase (linear genomes), although direct experimental evidence is missing (Pietilä et al., 2009, Roine et al., 2010, Bath et al., 2006).  Viruses exit the cells continuously starting 3-4 hours post infection (Pietilä et al., 2012, Svirskaitė et al., 2016).  During the infection cycle, host growth can be slightly retarded, although the infected cells are consuming oxygen as much as the non-infected ones (Pietilä et al., 2009, Pietilä et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010, Svirskaitė et al., 2016). The non-lytic life cycle is also evidenced by the hazy appearance of the plaques the viruses form on the host lawn. The characteristics of the life cycle and the presence of lipid envelope in the virions suggest that pleolipoviruses exit host cells using budding.

Biology

The current members of family Pleolipoviridae have a narrow host range. They infect only their original isolation hosts, all of which belong to the class Halobacteria. Pleolipoviruses display a wide geographical distribution and originate from hypersaline environments such as solar salterns and hypersaline lakes in Europe, Asia and Australia (Pietilä et al., 2012, Bath et al., 2006, Atanasova et al., 2012, Li et al., 2014)

Genus demarcation criteria

The following criteria are used to differentiate genera in the family:

  • Genome type i.e. linear or circular
  • Gene content in terms of the suggested replication or polymerase proteins 

Derivation of names

Pleo: from Greek pleo, “many”.

Lipo: from Greek lipos, “lipid”.

Phylogenetic relationships

Members of family Pleolipoviridae share a similar structural protein pattern, genome synteny, and some sequence similarity. On the basis of amino acid sequence identity, the internal membrane protein (protein VP3 of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1)) is the most conserved among the members of family Pleolipoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of VP3-like proteins divides the pleolipoviruses into three groups, which are consistent with the division of the viruses into the three genera (Senčilo et al., 2012, Pietilä et al., 2016).

Similarity with other taxa

Members of the family Pleolipoviridae form a distinct group of viruses. Their structural proteins share no significant amino acid similarity with the structural proteins of any other virus. Acholeplasma virus L2 (APVL2, family Plasmaviridae) infecting the bacterium Acholeplasma laidlawii displays similar virion morphology (quasi-spherical, pleomorphic) as that of pleolipoviruses. In both cases, the virion envelope is composed of host-derived lipids that are acquired unselectively (Al-Shammari and Smith 1981, Dybvig et al., 1985, Maniloff et al., 1994). The APVL2 genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule (~12 kbp) as the genomes of some viruses belonging to the genus Alphapleolipovirus (Pietilä et al., 2009, Senčilo et al., 2012). Nevertheless, the genome sequence of APVL2 shares no identity with pleolipoviral sequences at the nucleotide sequence level. On the basis of virion morphology and structural protein patterns, it has been hypothesized that HRPV-1 could be related to mycoplasmavirus L172 which infects Acholeplasma laidlawii and contains a circular single-stranded DNA genome (Pietilä et al., 2009, Dybvig et al., 1985). Currently, there is no genome sequence data available for mycoplasmavirus L172 and it has not been officially classified to any taxon.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 7

nd*

HRPV-7

Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 8

nd

HRPV-8

Haloarcula pleomorphic virus 2

nd

HAPV-2

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
*nd, not determined

Genus: Alphapleolipovirus

Distinguishing features

The viral genomes encode putative rolling circle replication initiation proteins (RCR Reps) that have not been detected among the members of the other genera. Viruses of the genus Alphapleolipovirus contain different types of circular genomes: either a circular double-stranded or single-stranded DNA molecule (Pietilä et al., 2009, Senčilo et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010, Li et al., 2014).

Virion

Morphology

Virions are 40-55 nm in diameter and pleomorphic in shape with a membrane vesicle and irregularly distributed spike complexes attached on the vesicle. Mature virions contain a single internal membrane protein and a spike protein. The virion structure of HRPV-1 has been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography (Pietilä et al., 2012). The virion contains a continuous, approximately 4.2 nm thick membrane, which includes the internal membrane protein VP3. The club-shaped VP4 spike complexes protrude from the membrane surface and are irregularly distributed. The ~7 nm long complexes are anchored to the membrane by their C-terminal domains.

Physicochemical and physical properties

The buoyant density of the virion is about 1.26-1.29 g cm−3 in CsCl (Pietilä et al., 2009, Pietilä et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010). The buoyant density of Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 2 (HHPV-2) has not been determined. Virions are stable at high NaCl concentration (above 2.5 M), but are readily inactivated by low NaCl concentrations or the absence of NaCl, temperatures above 60 °C, or detergents. In general, the organic solvent chloroform inactivates the members of the genus Alphapleolipovirus. Virion stability of HHPV-2 has not been determined.

Nucleic acid

The genomes consist of a circular single-stranded DNA of 7.0-10.7 kilonucleotides [HRPV-1, Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 2 (HRPV-2), Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 6 (HRPV-6) and HHPV-2] or of a circular double-stranded DNA of about 8.1 kbp [Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 (HHPV-1)].

Proteins

Virions contain two major structural proteins: an internal membrane protein (VP3 for HRPV-1 and HHPV-1; VP4 for HRPV-2 and HRPV-6), and a spike protein (VP4 for HRPV-1 and HHPV1; VP5 for HRPV-2 and HRPV-6). The structural proteins of HHPV-2 have not been determined, but based on the sequence similarity, the putative ORF3 and ORF4 products are the major structural proteins of HHPV-2. HRPV-1 has also been identified to contain a minor structural protein VP8, which is predicted to be an NTPase.

Lipids

Virions contain lipids derived non-selectively from host cell membranes. Polar lipids identified in HRPV-1 virions are cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), and phosphatidylglycerosulfate (PGS) (Pietilä et al., 2010). In addition, virions of HRPV-1 contain neutral lipids and glycolipids (Pietilä et al., 2010). HRPV-6 virions contains archaeal phosphatidic acid (PA), unsaturated PG, PG, PGP-Me, PGS, and sulphated diglycosyl diphytanylglycerol (S-DGD-5) (Vitale et al., 2013). Based on thin-layer chromatography, CL, PG, PGP-Me, and PGS are present in the virions of the other alphapleolipoviruses (Pietilä et al., 2012).

Carbohydrates

The protein VP4 of HRPV-1 (spike protein) is glycosylated (Pietilä et al., 2010) with a pentasaccharide as the major N-glycan (Kandiba et al., 2012).

Genome organization and replication

Genomes contain from eight to fifteen predicted ORFs (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae). In addition to the conserved cluster of two genes and three predicted ORFs found in the members of the family Pleolipoviridae, alphapleolipoviruses share two ORFs: one encoding a putative RCR Rep, and another one encoding a putative protein of unknown function (Figure 1.Alphapleolipovirus).

Figure 1.AlphapleolipovirusGenome organization of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1. Genes encoding structural proteins are coloured purple, ORFs in grey. VP, viral protein; Rep, replication initiation protein; NTPase, nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase. The position of the first nucleotide (1 nt) is indicated.

In all alphapleolipoviruses, the latter ORF is located between the ORF for RCR Rep and the conserved cluster of five genes/ORFs. Alphapleolipoviruses are suggested to replicate their genomes via rolling-circle replication mechanism, although direct experimental evidence is not available. As with other Pleolipoviridae members, alphapleolipoviruses display a non-lytic life cycle and are suggested to exit the host cell via budding (Pietilä et al., 2009, Pietilä et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010).

Biology

Host range

Alphapleolipoviruses are known to infect their original isolation hosts belonging to either the family Halorubraceae or Haloarculaceae. HRPV-1, HRPV-2 and HRPV-6 infect Halorubrum sp. strains PV6, SS5-4 and SS7-4, respectively, and HHPV-1 and HHPV2 infect Haloarcula hispanica (ATCC 33960) (Pietilä et al., 2012, Roine et al., 2010, Atanasova et al., 2012, Li et al., 2014). 

Geographical distribution

In all cases except for HHPV-1 and HHPV-2, the hosts were isolated from the same geographical locations as the viruses themselves, i.e. from Trapani, Italy and Samut Sakhon, Thailand (Pietilä et al., 2012, Atanasova et al., 2012). HHPV-1 was isolated from Margherita di Savoia, Italy and HHPV-2 was isolated from saltern on Hulu Island, China (Atanasova et al., 2012, Li et al., 2014).

Species demarcation criteria

Not currently defined.

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Haloarcula virus HHPV1 Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 GU321093 NC_013758 Complete genome HHPV-1
Haloarcula virus HHPV2 Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 2 KF056323 NC_023592 Complete genome HHPV-2
Halorubrum virus HRPV1 Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 FJ685651 NC_012558 Complete genome HRPV-1
Halorubrum virus HRPV2 Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 2 JN882264 NC_017087 Complete genome HRPV-2
Halorubrum virus HRPV6 Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 6 JN882266 NC_017089 Complete genome HRPV-6
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Genus: Betapleolipovirus

Distinguishing features

The circular double-stranded DNA genomes of betapleolipoviruses contain single-stranded discontinuities (Senčilo et al., 2012). The viruses have two ORFs encoding proteins with unknown function, which are not found in the genomes of members of the other genera.

Virion

Morphology

Virions are 55-70 nm in diameter and pleomorphic in shape with a membrane vesicle and irregularly distributed spike structures (Pietilä et al., 2012, Atanasova et al., 2012). Mature virions contain one or two types of internal membrane protein and a single type of spike protein.

Physicochemical and physical properties

Virions have a buoyant density of about 1.27-1.34 g cm−3 in CsCl (Pietilä et al., 2012). Virions are stable at a broad range of NaCl concentrations, from 0 M to 5.5 M (saturation) for at least 24 h at 4 °C, pH 7.2 (Demina et al., 2016), but are readily inactivated by temperatures above 60 °C, organic solvents and detergents. 

Nucleic acid

Betapleolipovirus genomes consist of a circular double-stranded DNA (~8.8 and 9.7 kbp; Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 3 (HRPV-3) and Halogeometricum pleomorphic virus 1 (HGPV-1) and contain single-stranded discontinuities (Senčilo et al., 2012).

Proteins

Virions contain two or three major structural proteins: one or two types of internal membrane protein (VP1 for HRPV-3; VP2 and VP3 for HGPV-1), and a spike protein (VP2 for HRPV-3; VP4 for HGPV-1) (Pietilä et al., 2012).

Lipids

Virions contain lipids derived non-selectively from host cell membranes. The major lipid species are PG and PGP-Me (Pietilä et al., 2012) . Virions of HRPV-3 also contain PGS, which has not been detected in HGPV-1 virions. The spike protein VP4 of HGPV-1 contains a lipid modification (Pietilä et al., 2012).

Genome organization and replication

The genomes of betapleolipoviruses encode either twelve or fifteen ORFs. Besides the conserved cluster of five genes or predicted ORFs shared among the members of the family Pleolipoviridae, betapleolipoviruses display high amino acid identity of two more putative ORF products. Both of these ORFs encode proteins of unknown function, one of which contains C-terminal winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain, suggesting that it has a role linked to interaction with DNA (Senčilo et al., 2012). Similarly to other members of family Pleolipoviridae, betapleolipoviruses display a non-lytic life cycle and are thought to exit host cells via budding; albeit, HGPV-1 virion production does not retard the host growth and starts slightly later than those of other pleolipoviruses (Pietilä et al., 2012). 

Biology

Host range

Betapleolipoviruses infect only their original isolation hosts belonging to the family Halorubraceae or Haloferacaceae. HRPV-3 infects Halorubrum sp. SP3-3 and HGPV-1 infects Halogeometricum sp. CG-9 (Atanasova et al., 2012).

Geographical distribution

HRPV-3 and HGPV-1 with their own host strains have been isolated from Sedom Ponds, Israel and Cabo de Gata, Spain, respectively (Atanasova et al., 2012).

Species demarcation criteria

Not currently defined.

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Halogeometricum virus HGPV1 Halogeometricum pleomorphic virus 1 JN882267 NC_017090 Complete genome HGPV-1
Halorubrum virus HRPV3 Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 3 JN882265 NC_017088 Complete genome HRPV-3
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Abbreviation

Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 3

KX344510

HHPV-3

Natrinema virus SNJ2

AJVG01000023*

SNJ2

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
* Natrinema sp. J7-1 (Contig004) containing SNJ2 virus as a provirus.


Genus: Gammapleolipovirus

Distinguishing features

The viral genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule with inverted terminal repeat sequences bound by terminal proteins, and contains a gene encoding a putative type B DNA polymerase (Bath et al., 2006).

Virion

Morphology

Virions are ~70 nm in diameter and pleomorphic in shape with a membrane vesicle and irregularly distributed spike structures. Virions contain a single type of internal membrane protein (VP27), two types of spike protein (VP28 and VP29), as well as protein VP32 with unknown function (Pietilä et al., 2012).

Physicochemical and physical properties

Virions have a buoyant density of about 1.30 g cm−3 in CsCl (Bath et al., 2006). Virions are stable at pH 6-9, and high NaCl concentration (above 2.5 M), but are readily inactivated by low NaCl concentrations or the absence of NaCl, low pH, temperatures above 50 °C, organic solvents, or detergents (Bath et al., 2006).

Nucleic acid

The virion DNA of the gammapleolipovirus His2 virus (His2) is a linear double-stranded molecule of about 16 kbp with inverted terminal repeat sequences bound by terminal proteins (Bath et al., 2006).

Proteins

Virions contain three major structural proteins: internal membrane protein VP27, and two spike proteins, VP28 and VP29. An additional structural protein, VP32, with an unknown function, has been identified and shares no homologues with the members of the other genera (Pietilä et al., 2012, Senčilo et al., 2012).

Lipids

Virions contain lipids derived non-selectively from host cell membranes. The major lipid species are PG, PGP-Me and PGS (Pietilä et al., 2012). The spike protein VP28 of His2 contains a lipid modification (Pietilä et al., 2012). 

Genome organization and replication

According to the genome organization and content, His2 is the most divergent member of the family Pleolipoviridae. Similarly to other members of the Pleolipoviridae, His2 contains the conserved cluster of five ORFs, albeit with small deviation. The His2 internal membrane protein VP27, encoded within the conserved ORF cluster, is not a homologue of internal membrane proteins of other pleolipoviruses, based on amino acid sequence similarity. However, it has an analogous function in the virion, i.e. it can be considered a functional homologue (Pietilä et al., 2012). Similarly to other Pleolipoviridae members, His2 has a non-lytic life cycle and is thought to exit host cell via budding (Pietilä et al., 2012, Svirskaitė et al., 2016). 

Biology

Host range

His2 infects only its original isolation host Haloarcula hispanica (ATCC 33960) belonging to the family Haloarculaceae (Bath et al., 2006).

Geographical distribution

His2 was isolated from Pink Lakes in Victoria, Australia (Bath et al., 2006), while its host Haloarcula hispanica (ATCC 33960) originates from Spain.

Species demarcation criteria

Not applicable

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Haloarcula virus His2 His2 virus AF191797 NC_007918 Complete genome His2
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Authors: Pleolipoviridae

Dennis H. Bamford*
Department of Biosciences
University of Helsinki
Viikinkaari 9B, FI-00014
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 2941 59100
E-mail: dennis.bamford@helsinki.fi

Maija K. Pietilä
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences
University of Helsinki
Viikinkaari 9B, FI-00014
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 5044 86393
E-mail: maija.pietila@helsinki.fi

Elina Roine
Department of Biosciences
University of Helsinki
Viikinkaari 9B, FI-00014
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 2941 59109
E-mail: elina.roine@helsinki.fi

Nina S. Atanasova
Department of Biosciences
University of Helsinki
Viikinkaari 9B, FI-00014
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 2941 59559
E-mail: nina.atanasova@helsinki.fi

Ana Dienstbier
Institute of Microbiology of the CAS,
v.v.i., Videnska 1083
Prague
Czech Republic
Tel: +420 7922 77740
E-mail: ana.sencilo@biomed.cas.cz

Hanna M. Oksanen*
Department of Biosciences
University of Helsinki
Viikinkaari 9B, FI-00014
University of Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 2941 59104
E-mail: hanna.oksanen@helsinki.fi

* to whom correspondence should be addressed


Resources: Pleolipoviridae

Sequence alignments and tree files:

None currently associated with this report.


Further reading: Pleolipoviridae

Atanasova, N. S., Bamford, D. H. & Oksanen, H. M. (2016). Virus-host interplay in high salt environments. Environ Microbiol Rep 8, 431-444. [PubMed]

Atanasova, N. S., Bamford, D. H. & Oksanen, H. M. (2015a). Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes. Biochimie 118, 333-343. [PubMed]

Atanasova, N. S., Oksanen, H. M. & Bamford, D. H. (2015b). Haloviruses of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Curr Opin Microbiol 25, 40-48. [PubMed]

Atanasova, N. S., Senčilo, A., Pietilä, M. K., Roine, E., Oksanen, H. M. & Bamford, D. H. (2015c). Comparison of lipid-containing bacterial and archaeal viruses. Adv Virus Res 92, 1-61. [PubMed]

Pietilä, M. K., Demina, T. A., Atanasova, N. S., Oksanen, H. M. & Bamford, D. H. (2014). Archaeal viruses and bacteriophages: comparisons and contrasts. Trends Microbiol 22, 334-344. [PubMed]

Pietilä, M. K., Roine, E., Senčilo, A., Bamford, D. H. & Oksanen, H. M. (2016). Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes. Arch Virol 161, 249-256. [PubMed]

Roine, E. & Bamford, D. H. (2012). Lipids of archaeal viruses. Archaea 2012, 384919. [PubMed]

Roine, E. & Oksanen, H. M. (2011). Viruses from the hypersaline environment. In Halophiles and Hypersaline Environments: Current Research and Future Trends, pp. 153-172. Edited by A. Ventosa, A. Oren & Y. Ma. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag


References: Pleolipoviridae

Al-Shammari, A. J. N. & Smith, P. F. (1981). Lipid composition of two mycoplasmaviruses, MV-Lg-L172 and MVL2. J Gen Virol 54, 455-458.

Atanasova, N. S., Roine, E., Oren, A., Bamford, D. H. & Oksanen, H. M. (2012). Global network of specific virus-host interactions in hypersaline environments. Environ Microbiol 14, 426-440. [PubMed]

Bath, C., Cukalac, T., Porter, K. & Dyall-Smith, M. L. (2006). His1 and His2 are distantly related, spindle-shaped haloviruses belonging to the novel virus group, Salterprovirus. Virology 350, 228-239. [PubMed]

Demina, T. A., Atanasova, N. S., Pietilä, M. K., Oksanen, H. M. & Bamford, D. H. (2016). Vesicle-like virion of Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 3 preserves high infectivity in saturated salt. Virology 499, 40-51. [PubMed]

Dybvig, K., Nowak, J. A., Sladek, T. L. & Maniloff, J. (1985). Identification of an enveloped phage, mycoplasma virus L172, that contains a 14-kilobase single-stranded DNA genome. J Virol 53, 384-390. [PubMed]

Kandiba, L., Aitio, O., Helin, J., Guan, Z., Permi, P., Bamford, D. H., Eichler, J. & Roine, E. (2012). Diversity in prokaryotic glycosylation: an archaeal-derived N-linked glycan contains legionaminic acid. Mol Microbiol 84, 578-593. [PubMed]

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Citation: Pleolipoviridae

A summary of this ICTV Report chapter has been published as an ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile article in the Journal of General Virology, and should be cited when referencing this online chapter as follows:

Bamford, D.H., Pietilä, M.K., Roine, E., Atanasova, N.S., Dienstbier, A., Oksanen, H.M., and ICTV Report Consortium, 2017, ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae, Journal of General Virology, 98: 29162917.