Genus: Waikavirus

Genus: Waikavirus

Distinguishing features

Waikaviruses have a monopartite genome encapsidated by three capsid proteins; these viruses are transmitted by aphids or leafhoppers.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organisation and replication

The genomic organization of waikaviruses is similar to that of sequiviruses. However, small ORFs have been identified near the 3ʹ-end of the RNA or overlapping with the main polyprotein but in a different reading frame (Figure 3.Secoviridae) (Chaouch et al., 2004, Thole and Hull 1996, Firth and Atkins 2008). Some experimental evidence has been presented suggesting that subgenomic RNAs are produced from the 3ʹ-region of the RNA (Reddick et al., 1997). The biological significance of the small open reading frames or of the putative subgenomic RNAs is not known. The genomic RNAs are polyadenylated at their 3ʹ-end. The presence of a 5ʹ-linked VPg has not been confirmed experimentally.


The natural host range of waikaviruses is usually restricted to species within a few plant families (Bockelman et al., 1982). Waikaviruses are not sap-transmitted. Field transmission is in the semi-persistent manner by aphids or leafhoppers. A virus-encoded helper protein is probably needed. Some waikaviruses are helper viruses for the insect transmission of other viruses: anthriscus yellows virus in the case of parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV, genus Sequivirus) (Murant and Gould 1968) and rice tungro spherical virus in the case of rice tungro bacilliform virus (family Caulimoviridae) (this association being responsible for the very damaging rice tungro disease) (Hibino 1983).

Species demarcation criteria

See discussion under family description.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Anthriscus yellows virusAnthriscus yellows virusNo entry in GenbankAYV
Bellflower vein chlorosis virusbellflower vein chlorosis virusCT1KT238881NC_027915Complete genomeBVCV
Maize chlorotic dwarf virusmaize chlorotic dwarf virusTNU67839NC_003626Complete genomeMCDV
Rice tungro spherical virusrice tungro spherical virusShenM95497NC_001632Complete genomeRTSV
Waikavirus AcYV1Actinidia yellowing virus 1MN180070Complete genomeAcYV1
Waikavirus BCWVAblackcurrant waikavirus AMN701059Complete genomeBCWVA
Waikavirus BnRV1brassica napus RNA virus 1MH844554Complete genomeBnRV1
Waikavirus PoLV1poaceae Liege virus 1MW289237Complete coding genomePoLV1
Waikavirus PWaiVpersimmon waikavirusLC488189Complete genomePWaiV
Waikavirus RCaV1red clover-associated virus 1MH325329Complete genomeRCaV1

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses 

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

blackcurrant waikavirus A

KJ572568*, KJ572572*


red clover associated virus 1



* = partial sequences
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.
blackcurrant waikavirus A (Ho and Tzanetakis 2014)
red clover associated virus 1 (Koloniuk and Fránová 2018)