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This genus contains only three species. The viruses are presumably transmitted by host-adapted populations of eriophyid mite species in a semi-persistent manner. The rymoviruses share a reciprocal monophyletic relationship with members of the genus Potyvirus (French and Stenger 2005).
Virions are flexuous filaments 690–720 nm×11–15 nm in size.
Virion density in CsCl is 1.325 g cm-3 (for ryegrass mosaic virus). Virion S20,w is 165–166S for most members.
Virions contain a single molecule of linear positive sense ssRNA with a 3′-poly(A) terminus. Genomic RNA is about 9.5 kb in size.
Rymoviruses encode one type of CP, with a theoretical Mr of 35,482 Da and an apparent Mr estimated by Western blots of 45 kDa for RGMV.
The complete genome sequences available for isolates of rygrass mosaic virus, Agropyron mosaic virus, and Hordeum mosaic virus indicate that rymoviruses have a genome organization and replication strategy similar to other members of the Potyviridae with monopartite genomes (Figure 2.Potyviridae).
Particles of most rymoviruses are moderately immunogenic. Isolates of HoMV and AgMV are serologically related.
Most rymoviruses have limited but widespread host ranges within the family Gramineae but some have relatively narrow host ranges.
Transmission by eriophyid mites and mechanical transmission have been reported for most members. The eriophyid mites transmitting rymoviruses are different from those transmitting tritimoviruses. The cereal rust mite Abacarus hystrix transmits both RGMV and AgMV, but only the former is efficiently transmitted. No vector is known for HoMV. Recent studies have revealed that host-associated populations of A. hystrix represent a species complex.
Rymo: from ryegrass and mosaic
SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviationAgropyron mosaic virusAgropyron mosaic virusND402AY623626NC_005903Complete genomeAgMVHordeum mosaic virusHordeum mosaic virusPV81AY623627NC_005904Complete genomeHoMVRyegrass mosaic virusryegrass mosaic virusDKY09854NC_001814Complete genomeRGMV
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