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Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is transmitted by the wheat curl mite and has an unusually long 5’ untranslated region. The vectors are currently unknown for the other members of the genus.
Virions of sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) are flexuous filaments 890 nm×15 nm in size.
Virions contain a positive sense ssRNA 9.7–10.2 kb in size with a 3′-poly(A) terminus.
The TriMV CP is a single peptide of 293 aa, and its MW is about 32 kDa. For SCSMV the viral CP is 281 aa with the MW estimated to be 36 kDa. Caladenia virus A (CalVA) has a CP of 285 aa and MW of 31.
The TriMV genome consists of 10,266 nt. The genome encodes a polyprotein of 3122 aa. TriMV has an unusually long 5’ untranslated region, but this is not shared by members of the other two species. The order of coding regions is typical of that of the potyviruses (Figure 2.Potyviridae). Most known potyvirus motifs are present in the polyprotein of poaceviruses. The aphid transmission motifs present in the HC-Pros (KITC, PTK) and CPs (DAG) of potyviruses are absent in poaceviruses. The zinc-finger-like motif H-(X2)-C-(X29)-C-(X2)-C in the tritimovirus wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) HC-Pro is essential for transmission by mites. A similar motif in the poacevirus CalVA (unknown vector) is present as H-(X2)-H-(X29)-C-(X2)-C (Wylie et al., 2012). In TriMV (mite transmitted) and SCSMV (unknown vector), the C-(X2)-C motif exists, but the remainder of the motif is incomplete. The P1 rather than the HC-Pro suppresses the host RNA-suppression response in TriMV (Tatineni et al., 2012). Members of the genus Poacevirus are phylogenetically closest to those of another mite-transmitted genus, Tritimovirus.
A Western blot revealed that antiserum raised to SCSMV weakly cross-reacts with WSMV protein. SCSMV did not cross react with other sugarcane-infecting members of the Potyviridae.
TriMV and SCSMV only infect hosts in the Gramineae, while CalMV infects orchids (Wylie et al., 2012).
TriMV is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella).
Poace: from Poaceae, the family name of the hosts of two member species.
SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviationCaladenia virus ACaladenia virus AKP1JX156425NC_018572Complete genomeCalVASugarcane streak mosaic virussugarcane streak mosaic virusPAKGQ388116NC_014037Complete genomeSCSMVTriticum mosaic virusTriticum mosaic virusU06-123FJ263671NC_012799Complete genomeTriMV
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