Genus: Cosavirus

Genus: Cosavirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.

Virion

Morphology

No details are available on the morphology of virions.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Holtz et al., 2008, Kapoor et al., 2008a, Blinkova et al., 2009, Cotten et al., 2014, Kapusinszky et al., 2012): c. 7,632–7,802 nt (5′-UTR: up to 1,361 nt; ORF: 6,366–6,402 nt; 3′-UTR: 75–93 nt). The location of the cre has not been identified.

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:

VPg+5′-UTRIRES-II-[1A-1B-1C-1D-2Anpgp/2B-2C/3A-3B-3C-3D]-3′-UTR-poly(A)

The deduced polyproteins are of 2,113–2,133 amino acids. There is no L protein. 2A is a short foot-and-mouth disease virus-like polypeptide (NPG↓P). Sequence data (e.g., JN867757, KM516909) suggest interspecies recombination (Kapusinszky et al., 2012).

Biology

Known natural hosts are humans and pigs. No virus has been isolated. Viral RNA was detected in faeces and pharyngeal swabs of diseased and clinically healthy humans and pigs. Sequence data of capsid protein-encoding gene regions indicate at least 35 types within the species (CoSV-A1 to -A25, CoS-V-B1, tentative CoSV-C1, CoSV-D1 to -D5, CoSV-E1, -E2, CoSV-F1).

Derivation of names

Cosavirus: from common stool-associated virus 

Species demarcation criteria

Members of a species of the genus Cosavirus:

  • are less than 35% divergent in P1 aa sequence
  • are less than 10% divergent in 2C + 3CD aa sequence
  • share a common genome organization

The divergence (number of differences per site between sequences) of different cosavirus species ranges from 0.4–0.53 for P1 and 0.22–0.37 for 3CD.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Cosavirus Acosavirus A1553FJ438902NC_012800Complete genomeCoSV-A1
Cosavirus Acosavirus A26344 (human/Pakistan)FJ438903Complete coding genomeCoSV-A2
Cosavirus Acosavirus A36572 (human/Pakistan)FJ438904Partial genomeCoSV-A3
Cosavirus Acosavirus A45006 (human/Pakistan)FJ438905; FJ438906Partial genomeCoSV-A4
Cosavirus Acosavirus A5NG6 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867771Partial genomeCoSV-A5
Cosavirus Acosavirus A6TN06-s231 (human/Tunisia/2006)JN867790Partial genomeCoSV-A6
Cosavirus Acosavirus A7NP11 (human/Nepal)JN867768Partial genomeCoSV-A7
Cosavirus Acosavirus A8NG8 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867776Partial genomeCoSV-A8
Cosavirus Acosavirus A9NP5 (human/Nepal)JN867763Partial genomeCoSV-A9
Cosavirus Acosavirus A10NG11 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867772Partial genomeCoSV-A10
Cosavirus Acosavirus A11NP1 (human/Nepal)JN867760Partial genomeCoSV-A11
Cosavirus Acosavirus A12NG14 (human/Nigeria)JN867774Partial genomeCoSV-A12
Cosavirus Acosavirus A13NP6 (human/Nepal)JN867764Partial genomeCoSV-A13
Cosavirus Acosavirus A14NG12 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867773Partial genomeCoSV-A14
Cosavirus Acosavirus A15NG23 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867780Partial genomeCoSV-A15
Cosavirus Acosavirus A16NP10 (human/Nepal)JN867767Partial genomeCoSV-A16
Cosavirus Acosavirus A17NG3 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867769Partial genomeCoSV-A17
Cosavirus Acosavirus A18NG15 (human/Nigeria)JN867775Partial genomeCoSV-A18
Cosavirus Acosavirus A19PK6187 (human/Pakistan/2006)JN867759Complete coding genomeCoSV-A19
Cosavirus Acosavirus A20NG263 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867756Complete coding genomeCoSV-A20
Cosavirus Acosavirus A21NG295-2 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811826Partial genomeCoSV-A21
Cosavirus Acosavirus A22NG295-1 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811825Partial genomeCoSV-A22
Cosavirus Acosavirus A23NP8-1 (human/Nepal)JQ811821Partial genomeCoSV-A23
Cosavirus Acosavirus A24NG213-1 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811830Partial genomeCoSV-A24
Cosavirus Bcosavirus B12663FJ438907NC_012801Complete genomeCoSV-B
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D15004FJ438908NC_012802Complete genomeCoSV-D1
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D2NP4 (human/Nepal)JN867762Partial genomeCoSV-D2
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D3NG29 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867777Partial genomeCoSV-D3
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D4NP3 (human/Nepal)JN867761Partial genomeCoSV-D4
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D5NG19 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867778Partial genomeCoSV-D5
Cosavirus Ecosavirus E1Australia/81FJ555055NC_012798Complete genomeCoSV-E
Cosavirus Fcosavirus F1PK5006JN867758NC_034385Complete genomeCoSV-F

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

cosavirus C [hu/5152]

FJ442995*

  

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
* partial genome

The virus cosavirus C likely belongs to an additional species, but remains unclassified because only an incomplete virus sequence is available.