Genus: Rafivirus

Genus: Rafivirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.



No details are available on the morphology of virions.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Ng et al., 2015bShi et al., 2018Russo et al., 2018): 7,204–7,400 nt (5′-UTR: 435–487 nt; ORF: 6,699–6,861 nt; 3′-UTR: 52–70 nt). The location of the cre has not been identified. 

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:


The deduced polyprotein ranges from 2,233 to 2,287 aa. The function of the L and 2A proteins is unclear. 1AB remains uncleaved. The 1D/2A and 2A/2B cleavage sites are unclear.


No virus has been isolated. Viral RNA has been detected in faecal samples and tissue specimens of Forsten's tortoises (Indotestudo forstenii), Chinese stripe-necked turtles and geckos (Gekko similignum). 

Derivation of names

Rafivirus: refers phonetically to Raph(ael), a fictional character in the comic Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

Species demarcation criteria

Members of a species of genus Rafivirus:

  • share a common genome organization
  • are less than 30% divergent in the polyprotein aa sequence
  • are less than 30% divergent in the P1 aa sequence
  • are less than 30% divergent in the 2C + 3CD aa sequence

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Rafivirus Arafivirus A1; tortoise rafivirusUF4KJ415177NC_023988Complete genomeRaV-A1
Rafivirus Brafivirus B1; Hainan gekko similignum picornavirusPXYC222841MG600090NC_043544Complete genomeRaV-B1
Rafivirus Crafivirus C1; rhimaviruscane toad/AU1/Australia/2017MG967619NC_040642Complete genomeRaV-C1

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.