Genus: Nebovirus

Genus: Nebovirus

Distinguishing features

The strains in this genus form a distinct clade within the family Caliciviridae (Figure 4.Caliciviridae).


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

The nebovirus genome is 7.4 kb and is organized into two major ORFs. ORF1 encodes the non-structural polyprotein with the major structural capsid protein (VP1) gene in frame with the non-structural polyprotein. VP2 is frameshifted +2 and begins 2 nucleotides after the termination of ORF1.


Neboviruses cause endemic acute gastroenteritis in calves and the severity of disease in experimentally infected calves is considered equal or worse than that caused by genogroup 3 bovine noroviruses (see Norovirus section). Neboviruses cannot be grown in cell culture and therefore information on their biological properties is limited. There appear to be two phylogenetically distinct polymerase types but the VP1 sequence is conserved between the two prototype viruses, Newbury 1 and Nebraska (NB) bovine enteric calicivirus. This suggests that, like other enteric caliciviruses, neboviruses may undergo recombination.

Species demarcation criteria

Not applicable as only one species is currently recognized. Additional characterization of the viruses in this genus will be required in order to delineate species criteria.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Newbury 1 virusNewbury-1 virusUK/1976DQ013304NC_007916Complete genomeN1V
Newbury 1 virusNebraska virusBEC-NB/US/1980AY082891Complete genomeNBV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses 

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

Kırklareli virus



Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
(Alkan et al., 2015)