Genus: Anulavirus

Genus: Anulavirus

Distinguishing features 

RNA3 is slightly larger than RNA2, unlike other members of this family. The 2a protein is the smallest reported for viruses in the family (78.9 kDa).



Virus particles are quasi-spherical, with a diameter ranging from 25 to 35 nm, and have a poorly resolved surface structure.

Physicochemical and physical properties

In sucrose density gradients, virions sediment as three components of 80 (TV), 90 (MV) and 118 S (BV). In analytical centrifugation virions have single buoyant densities at equilibrium of 1.35 g cm−3 in CsCl or 1.29 g cm−3 in Cs2SO4. 

Nucleic acid

The genome of the tomato isolate of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) comprises 8477 nucleotides distributed among three linear, positive-sense ssRNAs that encode four proteins, denoted 1a, 2a, 3a (movement protein, MP) and CP (coat protein) (Finetti-Sialer & Gallitelli, 2003).


Virions contain a single CP of 23 kDa.


Lipids are not associated with virions


Carbohydrates are not associated with virions

Genome organization and replication

The genome is organized as depicted in Figure 2B.Bromoviridae. Coat protein is not required for activation of the genome.


Isolates of the type species of the genus (Pelargonium zonate spot virus) infect tomato and artichoke and are common in weeds (e.g. Diplotaxis erucoides where it is also seed-borne). The virus is in/on the pollen that is carried on the bodies of thrips feeding on susceptible hosts. An Israeli strain of PZSV has been proven to be vertically-transmissible via both pollen and seeds in tomato plants (Lapidot et al., 2010). Infected cells have severe cytopathological alterations. Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV) has been found only in amazon lily (Eucharis grandiflora) whereas the unclassified virus cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) has been detected only in cassava (Manihot esculenta). Both CIBV and ALiMMV are mechanically transmissible and have a narrow experimental host range.


Virions are weak immunogens and must be fixed before injection into rabbits to raise antibodies. An in vitro-synthesized fusion protein has been used to raise an antiserum against pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) that was proven to be highly specific and sensitive in western blot and ELISA tests (Gulati-Sakhuja et al., 2009).

Derivation of names 

Anula: from Latin “anularis” (ring-shaped)  describing the concentric symptoms induced in tomato by members of the type species Pelargonium zonate spot virus

Species demarcation criteria 

The two species in the genus Anulavirus, PZSV and ALiMMV are distinguished by differences in their members’ experimental host range and genome sequence. The genomes of PZSV and ALiMMV are 53 % identical, while the amino acid sequences of their 1a, 2a, 3a and CP proteins are 44.4%, 50.4%, 47.1% and 34.0 % identical, respectively (Fuji et al., 2013).

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Amazon lily mild mottle virusamazon lily mild mottle virusJapanRNA1: AB724113; RNA2: AB724114; RNA3: AB724115RNA1: NC_018402; RNA2: NC_018403; RNA3: NC_018404Complete genomeALMMV
Pelargonium zonate spot viruspelargonium zonate spot virusApuliaRNA1: AJ272327; RNA2: AJ272328; RNA3: AJ272329RNA1: NC_003649; RNA2: NC_003650; RNA3: NC_003651Complete genomePZSV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus-SCRI CV1

RNA1: KF742519; RNA2: KF742520; RNA3: KF742521


Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.