Genus: Hunnivirus

Genus: Hunnivirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.



No surface morphology is visible on the 28 nm particles by EM.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Reuter et al., 2012, Firth et al., 2014, Du et al., 2016): 7,496–7,588 nt (5′-UTR: 715–732 nt; ORF: 7,425 nt; 3′-UTR: 114–119 nt). 5′-UTR contains a type II IRES. The location of the cre has not been identified.

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:


The deduced polyprotein is of 2,474 aa. There is a L protein with unknown function. 2A is a short foot-and-mouth disease virus-like polypeptide with NPG↓P motif.


Viral RNA was detected in the faeces of cattle, sheep and rats. One virus (HuV-A3), from sheep, has been isolated in lamb kidney cell cultures in which it caused a CPE. Up to 9 genetic types may circulate. 

Derivation of names

Hunni-: from Hungary and Northern Ireland

Species demarcation criteria

There is only a single species in the genus.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Hunnivirus Ahunnivirus A1; bovine hungaroviruscattle/HUN/2008JQ941880NC_018668Complete genomeHuV-A1
Hunnivirus Ahunnivirus A2; ovine hungarovirus 1sheep/HUN/2009HM153767Complete genomeHuV-A2
Hunnivirus Ahunnivirus A4; Norway rat hunnivirusrat/Rn/PicoV/SX2015-2KX156157Complete genomeHuV-A4

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses 

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

Hunnivirus 05VZ-75-RAT099



Hunnivirus 83GR-70-RAT106



Hunnivirus 83GR-70-RAT051



ovine hungarovirus [OHUV/2009/HUN]



rodent hunnivirus [rodent/Rn/PicoV/SX2015-2]



Norway rat hunnivirus [NrHuV/NYC-E21]



 Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.

Phylogenetic analyses suggest that hunniviruses from rats may form a second species containing three genetic types.