Genus: Enterovirus


Genus: Enterovirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.

Virion

Morphology

Crystal structures of many enteroviruses have been resolved (Enterovirus A: coxsackievirus A7, coxsackievirus-A16, enterovirus A71; Enterovirus B: coxsackievirus A9, coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 1, echovirus 7, echovirus 11, echovirus 12, swine vesicular disease virus 1; Enterovirus C: poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2, poliovirus 3, coxsackievirus A21, coxsackievirus A24; Enterovirus D: enterovirus D68; Enterovirus E: enterovirus E1; Rhinovirus A: rhinovirus A1, rhinovirus A2, rhinovirus A16; Rhinovirus B: rhinovirus B14; Rhinovirus C: rhinovirus C15). CPs 1B, 1C and 1D of the human enteroviruses and rhinoviruses are among the largest in the family (VP1-3 chain lengths, 238–302 aa), and this is reflected in the typically long inter-β-strand loops, the larger than average thickness of the capsid wall (46 Å), and a surface relief that is strongly pronounced compared to most other picornaviruses. Encircling a raised area at the 5-fold axis is a 25 Å deep groove, or "canyon", into which the cellular receptor for poliovirus binds. The binding site for the pocket factor lies beneath the floor of this canyon within the 1D β-barrel. Virions can be converted by a variety of treatments (gentle heating, binding to receptor, or some neutralizing antibodies) to altered ('A') particles of 135S which lack 1A (VP4) and possess altered antigenicity.

Physicochemical and physical properties

Acid stability is variable. The virions of most enteroviruses are stable at pH 3.0, while those of rhinoviruses are unstable below pH 5–6. Similarly, the buoyant density in CsCl of the enterovirus virions is 1.30–1.34 g cm-3, while that of rhinoviruses ranges from 1.38 to 1.42 g cm-3. Sometimes a small proportion (about 1% of the population) of heavy particles (density: 1.43 g cm-3) can be observed for enteroviruses. Empty capsids are often observed in virus preparations.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Kitamura et al., 1981, Racaniello and Baltimore 1981, van der Werf et al., 1981): c. 7,100–7,450 nt (5′-UTR: 610–822 nt; ORF: 6,417–6,645 nt; 3′-UTR: 37–99 nt). The genome contains a type I IRES and no poly(C) tract. The cre is located in 2C (members of Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C and Enterovirus D) or 2A (members of Rhinovirus A) or 1D (members of Rhinovirus B) or 1B (members of Enterovirus C). Sequence identities for different enteroviruses, or between enteroviruses and rhinoviruses are more than 50% over the genome as a whole although it may be greater or less than this for particular genomic regions. The 5′-UTR of human rhinoviruses is shorter (ca. 650 nt) than that of enteroviruses, due to a deletion of approximately 100 nt between the IRES and the translation start site. Some members of Enterovirus C and Enterovirus D also have smaller deletions in this region. Members of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F have a non-perfect duplication of the first ~100 nucleotides allowing the formation of a second clover-leaf-like RNA structure. Members of Enterovirus G have an insertion of about 30 nt approximately 65 nt from the 5′-end of the genome resulting in a longer stem-loop D in the cloverleaf structure. Varying size deletions in the same region have been observed in some of the human enteroviruses.

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:

VPg+5′-UTRIRES-I-[1A-1B-1C-1D/2A1pro(/2A2pro)-2B-2C1hel(-2C2pro)/3A-3B-3C-3D]-3′UTR-poly(A)

The deduced polyprotein of enteroviruses ranges from 2,138–2,214 amino acids. Genomes encode no L protein. 2A protein has proteinase activity with an active site cysteine residue (2Apro), which is related to the family of small bacterial serine proteases, cleaves the polyprotein at its own N-terminus. Members of Enterovirus K have a second 2Apro with an active site serine residue. Various strains of Enterovirus G have a porcine torovirus-like cysteine protease-encoding region inserted between the 2C and 3A gene regions. Certain hydrophobic molecules that bind to the capsid in competition with pocket factor exert a powerful antiviral action by interfering with receptor binding and/or uncoating. Antiviral, pocket-binding drugs have been described. 

Antigenicity

Approximately 75 enterovirus serotypes and 100 rhinovirus serotypes have been classified by means of neutralization of infectivity.

Biology

Viruses multiply primarily in the gastrointestinal tract or the upper respiratory tract or sometimes both, but they can also multiply in other tissues, e.g., nerve, muscle, etc. Infection may frequently be asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include common cold, mild meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, myocarditis and conjunctivitis. Swine vesicular disease virus is a variant of coxsackievirus B5 and causes a vesicular disease in pigs clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (genus Aphthovirus) and vesicular disease in pigs caused by Seneca Valley virus (genus Senecavirus). Cap-dependent translation of host mRNA is inhibited by 2Apro, which cleaves the host eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF-4G). Many different cell surface molecules, many of them uncharacterized, serve as viral receptors. Well characterized receptor/virus interactions include poliovirus receptor (PVR) / polioviruses, coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) / coxsackie B viruses, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-l) / “major-group” rhinoviruses and some members of the Enterovirus C species, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) / “minor-group” rhinoviruses, decay-accelerating factor (DAF) / various enteroviruses, integrin VLA-2 / echovirus 1, and sialic acid / enterovirus D70. Poliovirus type 2, a member of the species Enterovirus C, is believed to have been eradicated through human intervention from circulation in human populations. 

Species demarcation criteria

Members of a species of the genus Enterovirus:

  • are less than 30% divergent in polyprotein aa sequence,
  • are less than 40% divergent in P1 aa sequence,
  • are less than 30% divergent in aa sequence of the non-structural proteins 2C + 3CD,
  • utilize a limited range of host cell receptors,
  • infect a limited natural host range,
  • have a genome base composition (G+C) which varies by no more than 2.5%,
  • share a significant degree of compatibility in proteolytic processing, replication,
  • encapsidation and genetic recombination.
  • share a common genome organization. 

The divergence (number of differences per site between sequences) between members of different Enterovirus species ranges from 0.29–0.59 for P1 and 0.1–0.48 for 3CD.

More than 300 virus types have been characterized genetically by phylogenetic clustering (Oberste et al., 1999, Palmenberg et al., 2009, Simmonds et al., 2010, McIntyre et al., 2013). Enterovirus A: 25 types, Enterovirus B: 63 types, Enterovirus C: 23 types, Enterovirus D: 5 types, Enterovirus E: 5 types, Enterovirus F: 7 types, Enterovirus G: 22 types, Enterovirus H: 1 type, Enterovirus I: 1 type, Enterovirus J: 6 types, Enterovirus K: 2 types, Enterovirus L: 1 type, Rhinovirus A: 80 types, Rhinovirus B: 32 types, Rhinovirus C: 57 types. 

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A2Fleetwood (Delaware/47)AY421760NC_038306Complete genomeCVA2
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A3Olson (New York/48)AY421761Complete genomeCVA3
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A4High Point (North Carolina/50)AY421762Complete genomeCVA4
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A5Swartz (New York/50)AY421763Complete genomeCVA5
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A6GdulaAY421764Complete genomeCVA6
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A7ParkerAY421765Complete genomeCVA7
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A8Donovan (New York/49)AY421766Complete genomeCVA8
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A10Kowalik (New York/50)AY421767Complete genomeCVA10
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A12Texas 12 (Texas/48)AY421768Complete genomeCVA12
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A14G-14 (South Africa/50)AY421769Complete genomeCVA14
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A16G-10 (South Africa/51)U05876Complete genomeCVA16
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A71BrCrU22521Complete genomeEV-A71
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A76FRA91-10369AY697458Complete genomeEV-A76
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A89BAN00-10359AY697459Complete genomeEV-A89
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A90BAN99-10399AY697460Complete genomeEV-A90
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A91BAN00-10406AY697461Complete genomeEV-A91
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A92USA/GA99/RJg-7EF667344Complete genomeEV-A92
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A114V13-0285/IND/2013KU355876Complete genomeEV-A114
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A119hu/09C13CMR (Cameroon)KC787153Partial genomeEV-A119
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A120MAD-2741-11 (Madagascar)LK021688Complete genomeEV-A120
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A121V13-0682/IND/2013KU355877Complete genomeEV-A121
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A122; simian virus 19M19sAF326754Complete genomeEV-A122
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A123; simian virus 43OM112tAF326761Complete genomeEV-A123
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A124; simian virus 46OM22AF326764Complete genomeEV-A124
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A125; baboon enterovirus A13A13AF326750Complete genomeEV-A125
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B3Nancy (Connecticut/US/49)M88483NC_038307Complete genomeCVB3
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B1JapanM16560Complete genomeCVB1
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B2Ohio-1 (Ohio/US/47)AF081485Complete genomeCVB2
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B4JVB (New York/US/51) (Benschoten)X05690Complete genomeCVB4
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B5Faulkner (Kentucky/US/52)AF114383Complete genomeCVB5
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B6Schmitt (Philippines/53) (1-15-21)AF039205Complete genomeCVB6
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus A9GriggsD00627Complete genomeCVA9
Enterovirus Bechovirus 1Farouk (Egypt/51)AF029859Complete genomeE1
Enterovirus Bechovirus 1; echovirus 8Bryson (Ohio)AF250874Partial genomeE1
Enterovirus Bechovirus 2Cornelis (Connecticut/US/51)AY302545Complete genomeE2
Enterovirus Bechovirus 3Morrisey (Connecticut/US/51)AY302553Complete genomeE3
Enterovirus Bechovirus 4Pesacek (Connecticut/US/51)AY302557Complete genomeE4
Enterovirus Bechovirus 5Noyce (Maine/54)AF083069Complete genomeE5
Enterovirus Bechovirus 6D'Amori (Rhode Island/55)AY302558Complete genomeE6
Enterovirus Bechovirus 7Wallace (Ohio)AY302559Complete genomeE7
Enterovirus Bechovirus 9Hill (Ohio/US/53)X84981Complete genomeE9
Enterovirus Bechovirus 11Gregory (Ohio)X80059Complete genomeE11
Enterovirus Bechovirus 12Travis (Philippines/53)X79047Complete genomeE12
Enterovirus Bechovirus 13Del Carmen (Philippines/53)AY302539Complete genomeE13
Enterovirus Bechovirus 14Tow (Rhode Island/54)AY302540Complete genomeE14
Enterovirus Bechovirus 15Ch 96-51 (Charleston) (West Virginia/51)AY302541Complete genomeE15
Enterovirus Bechovirus 16Harrington (Massachusetts/51)AY302542Complete genomeE16
Enterovirus Bechovirus 17CHHE-29 (Mexico City)AY302543Complete genomeE17
Enterovirus Bechovirus 18Metcalf (Ohio)AF317694Complete genomeE18
Enterovirus Bechovirus 19Burke (Ohio)AY302544Complete genomeE19
Enterovirus Bechovirus 20JV-1 (Washington DC/55)AY302546Complete genomeE20
Enterovirus Bechovirus 21Farina (E26D) (Massachusetts/50)AY302547Complete genomeE21
Enterovirus Bechovirus 24DeCamp (Ohio/56)AY302548Complete genomeE24
Enterovirus Bechovirus 25JV-4 (Washington DC/57)AY302549Complete genomeE25
Enterovirus Bechovirus 26Coronel (11-3-6) (Philippines/53)AY302550Complete genomeE26
Enterovirus Bechovirus 27Bacon (1-36-4) (Philippines/53)AY302551Complete genomeE27
Enterovirus Bechovirus 29JV-10 (Washington DC/55)AY302552Complete genomeE29
Enterovirus Bechovirus 30Bastianni (New York/58)AF162711Complete genomeE30
Enterovirus Bechovirus 31Caldwell (Kansas/55)AY302554Complete genomeE31
Enterovirus Bechovirus 32PR-10 (Puerto Rico)AY302555Complete genomeE32
Enterovirus Bechovirus 33Toluca-3 (Mexico/59)AY302556Complete genomeE33
Enterovirus Benterovirus B69Toluca-1 (Mexico/59)AY302560Complete genomeEV-B69
Enterovirus Benterovirus B73CA55-1988AF241359Complete genomeEV-B73
Enterovirus Benterovirus B74USA/CA75-10213AY556057Complete genomeEV-B74
Enterovirus Benterovirus B75USA/OK85-10362AY556070Complete genomeEV-B75
Enterovirus Benterovirus B77CF496-99AJ493062Complete genomeEV-B77
Enterovirus Benterovirus B78Agius-W137-126/99AY208120Partial genomeEV-B78
Enterovirus Benterovirus B79USA/CA79-10384AY843297Complete genomeEV-B79
Enterovirus Benterovirus B80USA/CA67-10387AY843298Complete genomeEV-B80
Enterovirus Benterovirus B81USA/CA68-10389AY843299Complete genomeEV-B81
Enterovirus Benterovirus B82USA/CA64-10390AY843300Complete genomeEV-B82
Enterovirus Benterovirus B83USA/CA76-10392AY843301Complete genomeEV-B83
Enterovirus Benterovirus B84CIV2003-10603DQ902712Complete genomeEV-B84
Enterovirus Benterovirus B85BAN00-10353AY843303Complete genomeEV-B85
Enterovirus Benterovirus B86BAN00-10354AY843304Complete genomeEV-B86
Enterovirus Benterovirus B87BAN00-10396AY843305Complete genomeEV-B87
Enterovirus Benterovirus B88BAN01-10398AY843306Complete genomeEV-B88
Enterovirus Benterovirus B9338-03 (DR Congo)KM273013Partial genomeEV-B93
Enterovirus Benterovirus B97BAN99-10355AY843307Complete genomeEV-B97
Enterovirus Benterovirus B98T92-1499AB426608Complete genomeEV-B98
Enterovirus Benterovirus B100BAN2000-10500DQ902713Complete genomeEV-B100
Enterovirus Benterovirus B101CIV03-10361AY843308Complete genomeEV-B101
Enterovirus Benterovirus B106148/YN/CHN/12 (China/2012)KF990476Complete genomeEV-B106
Enterovirus Benterovirus B107TN94-0349AB426609Complete genomeEV-B107
Enterovirus Benterovirus B110LM1861 (chimpanzee/Cameroon/2006)JF416928; JF416931; JF416934; JF416937Partial genomeEV-B110
Enterovirus Benterovirus B111Q0011/XZ/CHN/2000KF312882Complete genomeEV-B111
Enterovirus Benterovirus B112GAB130 (chimpanzee/Gabon)KJ418244Complete genomeEV-B112
Enterovirus Benterovirus B113GAB653 (mandrill/Gabon)KJ701249Complete genomeEV-B113
Enterovirus Benterovirus B114; simian agent 5B165 (vervet monkey)AF326751Complete genomeEV-B114
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 1MahoneyV01149NC_002058Complete genomePV1
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 1Sabin (LSc-2ab)V01150Complete genomePV1
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 2Lansing (Michigan/37)M12197Complete genomePV2
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 2Sabin (P712- Ch-2ab)X00595Complete genomePV2
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 3Leon (California/37)K01392Complete genomeP-3
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 3Sabin (Leon 12a-1-b)X00925Complete genomePV3
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A1T.T. (Tompkins) (Coxsackie/NY/47)AF499635Complete genomeCVA-1
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A11Belgium 1 (Belgium/51)AF499636Complete genomeCVA-11
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A13Flores (Mexico/52)AF499637Complete genomeCVA-13
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A13; coxsackievirus A18G-13 (South Africa/50)AF499640Complete genomeCVA-13
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A17G12 (South Africa/51AF499639Complete genomeCVA-17
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A19NIH-8663 (Dohi) (Japan/52)AF499641Complete genomeCVA-19
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A20IH-35 (New York/55)AF499642Complete genomeCVA-20
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A21Kuykendall (California/52)AF546702Complete genomeCVA-21
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A22Chulman (New York/55)AF499643Complete genomeCVA-22
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A24JosephEF026081Complete genomeCVA-24
Enterovirus Centerovirus C95T08-083/Chad/2008JX417822Partial genomeEV-C95
Enterovirus Centerovirus C96BAN00-10499EF015886Complete genomeEV-C96
Enterovirus Centerovirus C99USA-GA84-10636EF555644Complete genomeEV-C99
Enterovirus Centerovirus C102BAN99-10424EF555645Complete genomeEV-C102
Enterovirus Centerovirus C104CL-1231094 FLEU840733Partial genomeEV-C104
Enterovirus Centerovirus C105PER153 (Peru/2010)JX393302Complete genomeEV-C105
Enterovirus Centerovirus C109NICA08-4327GQ865517Complete genomeEV-C109
Enterovirus Centerovirus C113BBD-48/Bangladesh/2009KC344833Complete genomeEV-C113
Enterovirus Centerovirus C116126/Russia/2010JX514942Complete genomeEV-C116
Enterovirus Centerovirus C117LIT22/Vilnius (Lithuania/2011)JX262382Complete genomeEV-C117
Enterovirus Centerovirus C118ISR10 (Israel/2011)JX961708Complete genomeEV-C118
Enterovirus Denterovirus D68FermonAY426531NC_038308Complete genomeEV-D68
Enterovirus Denterovirus D68; human rhinovirus 87F02-3607-CornAY355268Partial genomeEV-D68
Enterovirus Denterovirus D70J670/71 (Japan/71)D00820Complete genomeEV-D70
Enterovirus Denterovirus D94E210 (Egypt)DQ916376Complete genomeEV-D94
Enterovirus Denterovirus D111KK2640 (chimpanzee/Cameroon/2006)JF416929; JF416932; JF416935; JF416938Partial genomeEV-D111
Enterovirus Denterovirus D120MB6201 (gorilla/Cameroon)KF040080Partial genomeEV-D120
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E1; bovine enterovirus 1VG-5-27D00214NC_001859Complete genomeEV-E1
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E2PS42 (ATCC VR-758)DQ092792Complete genomeEV-E2
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E3D 14/3/96 (Germany/1996)DQ092786Partial genomeEV-E3
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E4PAK-NIH-21E5 (sewage/Karachi/2009)JQ690748; JQ690741Partial genomeEV-E4
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E5MexKSU/5 (Mexico/2015)KU172420Complete genomeEV-E5
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F1; bovine enterovirus 2BEV-261-M2-RM2DQ092770NC_021220Complete genomeEV-F1
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F2PS89DQ092795Complete genomeEV-F2
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F3PS87/Belfast (ATCC VR-774)DQ092794Complete genomeEV-F3
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F4W1 (brushtail possum/New Zealand)AY462106Complete genomeEV-F4
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F5M80 (Norfolk/England/1960)No entry in GenbankEV-F5
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F6T11f (Great Britain/1960)No entry in GenbankEV-F6
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F7AN12/Bos Taurus/JPN/2014LC038188Complete genomeEV-F7
Enterovirus Genterovirus G1; porcine enterovirus 9UKG/410/73AF363453NC_004441Complete genomeEV-G1
Enterovirus Genterovirus G2; formerly enterovirus 10LP54 (England/75)AF363455Complete genomeEV-G2
Enterovirus Genterovirus G3sw/K23/2008/HUNHQ702854Complete genomeEV-G3
Enterovirus Genterovirus G4wild boar/WBD/2011/HUNJN807387Complete genomeEV-G4
Enterovirus Genterovirus G5Ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUNJQ277724Complete genomeEV-G5
Enterovirus Genterovirus G6sw/2009/KORJQ818253Complete genomeEV-G6
Enterovirus Genterovirus G7ovine/990/UK-NIMG958646Complete genomeEV-G7
Enterovirus Genterovirus G8sw/714418/CaoLanh_VN/2012-02-21KT265911Complete genomeEV-G8
Enterovirus Genterovirus G9734087/ThanBinh_VN/2012-03-20KT265961Complete genomeEV-G9
Enterovirus Genterovirus G10sw/PoEnV-BEL-12R021KP982873Complete genomeEV-G10
Enterovirus Genterovirus G11sw/744257/2012/VietnamKJ156451Partial genomeEV-G11
Enterovirus Genterovirus G12sw/714222/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-16KT265900Partial genomeEV-G12
Enterovirus Genterovirus G13sw/714270/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-16KT265903Partial genomeEV-G13
Enterovirus Genterovirus G14sw/714405/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-21KT265909Partial genomeEV-G14
Enterovirus Genterovirus G15sw/724307/CaoLanh/VN/2012-03-14KT265941Partial genomeEV-G15
Enterovirus Genterovirus G16wild boar/BS14-17H2/DakLak_VN/2014KT266010Partial genomeEV-G16
Enterovirus Genterovirus G17sw/08/NC_USA/2015KY761948Complete genomeEV-G17
Enterovirus Genterovirus G18sw/GER/F26-2/23-12-2013MF113370Partial genomeEV-G18
Enterovirus Genterovirus G19sw/Ger/F8-2/04-02-2013MF113372Partial genomeEV-G19
Enterovirus Genterovirus G20goat/JL14/CHA/2014KU297674Complete genomeEV-G20
Enterovirus Henterovirus H; simian enterovirus1715 UWBAF326759NC_038309Complete genomeEV-H
Enterovirus Ienterovirus I1; dromedary camel enterovirus19CCKP345887NC_038310Complete genomeEV-I1
Enterovirus Ienterovirus I2; dromedary camel enterovirus 220CCKP345888Complete genomeEV-I2
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J1SV6-1631AF326766NC_010415Complete genomeEV-J1
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J103USA/GA99-POo-1FJ007373Complete genomeEV-J103
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J108N125AF414372Complete genomeEV-J108
Enterovirus Kenterovirus K1Rodent/Ee/PicoV/NX2015KX156158NC_038989Complete coding genomeEV-K1
Enterovirus Kenterovirus K2Rodent/Mc/PicoV/Tibet2015KX156159Complete coding genomeEV-K2
Enterovirus Lenterovirus L1Macaca mulatta/SEV-gx/2014/ChinaKU587555NC_029905Complete genomeEV-L1
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1VR-1559FJ445111NC_038311Complete genomeRV-A1
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1BB632D00239Complete genomeRV-A1B
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A2HGPX02316Complete genomeRV-A2
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A768CV11DQ473503Complete genomeRV-A7
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A8MRH-CV12FJ445113Complete genomeRV-A8
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A9211-CV13-ATCC VR489FJ445177Complete genomeRV-A9
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A10204-CV14DQ473498Complete genomeRV-A10
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A111-CV15EF173414Complete genomeRV-A11
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A12181-CV16EF173415Complete genomeRV-A12
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A13353 (South Carolina/59)FJ445116Complete genomeRV-A13
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A151734 (South Carolina/60)DQ473493Complete genomeRV-A15
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1611757 (Washington DC/60)L24917Complete genomeRV-A16
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A185986-CV17FJ445118Complete genomeRV-A18
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A19ATCC VR-1129FJ445119Complete genomeRV-A19
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A20ATCC VR-1130FJ445120Complete genomeRV-A20
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A21ATCC VR-1131FJ445121Complete genomeRV-A21
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A22ATCC VR-1132FJ445122Complete genomeRV-A22
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A235124-CV24DQ473497Complete genomeRV-A23
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A245146-CV25EF173416Complete genomeRV-A24
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A25ATCC VR-1135FJ445123Complete genomeRV-A25
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A286101-CV29DQ473508Complete genomeRV-A28
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A29ATCC VR-1139FJ445125Complete genomeRV-A29
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A30106FDQ473512Complete genomeRV-A30
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A31ATCC VR-506FJ445126Complete genomeRV-A31
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A32ATCC VR-1142FJ445127Complete genomeRV-A32
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A33ATCC VR-330FJ445128Complete genomeRV-A33
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A34137-3DQ473501Complete genomeRV-A34
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A36342HDQ473505Complete genomeRV-A36
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A38CH79DQ473495Complete genomeRV-A38
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A39209 (Maryland/62)AY751783Complete genomeRV-A39
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A40ATCC VR-341FJ445129Complete genomeRV-A40
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A4156110 (North Carolina/61)DQ473491Complete genomeRV-A41
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A43ATCC VR-1153FJ445131Complete genomeRV-A43
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A45ATCC VR-1155FJ445132Complete genomeRV-A45
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A46Crell (Baylor 2) (Texas/64)DQ473506Complete genomeRV-A46
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A47ATCC VR-1157FJ445133Complete genomeRV-A47
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A498213DQ473496Complete genomeRV-A49
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A50ATCC VR-517FJ445135Complete genomeRV-A50
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A51ATCC VR-1161FJ445136Complete genomeRV-A51
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A53F01-3928DQ473507Complete genomeRV-A53
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A54ATCC VR-1165FJ445138Complete genomeRV-A54
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A55Wis315E (Wisconsin/64)DQ473511Complete genomeRV-A55
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A56CH82 [V-151-011-021]FJ445140Complete genomeRV-A56
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A57fs ship-No.1-hrv-57FJ445141Complete genomeRV-A57
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A58ATCC VR-1168FJ445142Complete genomeRV-A58
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A59611-CV35DQ473500Complete genomeRV-A59
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A60ATCC VR-1473FJ445143Complete genomeRV-A60
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A61ATCC VR-1171FJ445144Complete genomeRV-A61
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A62ATCC VR-1172FJ445145Complete genomeRV-A62
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A63ATCC VR-1173FJ445146Complete genomeRV-A63
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A646258-CV44EF173417Complete genomeRV-A64
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A65ATCC VR-1175FJ445147Complete genomeRV-A65
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A66ATCC VR-1176FJ445148Complete genomeRV-A66
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A67ATCC VR-1177FJ445149Complete genomeRV-A67
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A68ATCC VR-1178FJ445150Complete genomeRV-A68
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A71ATCC VR-1181FJ445152Complete genomeRV-A71
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A73107EDQ473492Complete genomeRV-A73
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A74328ADQ473494Complete genomeRV-A74
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A75328FDQ473510Complete genomeRV-A75
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A76H00062DQ473502Complete genomeRV-A76
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A77ATCC VR-1187FJ445154Complete genomeRV-A77
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A782030-65EF173418Complete genomeRV-A78
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A80ATCC VR-1190FJ445156Complete genomeRV-A80
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A81ATCC VR-1191FJ445157Complete genomeRV-A81
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A82Santa Cruz (California)DQ473509Complete genomeRV-A82
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A85ATCC VR-1195FJ445163Complete genomeRV-A85
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A88CVD 01-0165-DambrauskasDQ473504Complete genomeRV-A88
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A8941467-GalloM16248Complete genomeRV-A89
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A90ATCC VR-1291FJ445167Complete genomeRV-A90
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A94SF-1803EF173419Complete genomeRV-A94
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A96ATCC VR-1296FJ445171Complete genomeRV-A96
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A100ATCC VR-1300FJ445175Complete genomeRV-A100
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A101hrv-A101GQ415051Complete genomeRV-A101
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A102AMS323EF155421Complete genomeRV-A102
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A103WA327E/09JF965515Complete genomeRV-A103
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A104p1025_sR2625_2009JN562727Complete genomeRV-A104
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A105p1064_sR985_2009JN614995Complete genomeRV-A105
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A106p1044_sR114_2008JQ245971Complete genomeRV-A106
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A107S07259KC859319Partial genomeRV-A107
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A108S07696KC859318Partial genomeRV-A108
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B3FEBDQ473485NC_038312Complete genomeRV-B3
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B416/60DQ473490Complete genomeRV-B4
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B5Norman/ATCC VR-485FJ445112Complete genomeRV-B5
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B6ThompsonDQ473486Complete genomeRV-B6
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B141059 (South Carolina/59)K02121Complete genomeRV-B14
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B1733342 (North Carolina/59)EF173420Complete genomeRV-B17
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B265660-CV27/ATCC VR-1136FJ445124Complete genomeRV-B26
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B275870-CV28/ATCC VR-1137FJ445186Complete genomeRV-B27
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B35164ADQ473487Complete genomeRV-B35
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B37151-1EF173423Complete genomeRV-B37
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B4256822 (North Carolina/61)/ATCC VR-338FJ445130Complete genomeRV-B42
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B481505DQ473488Complete genomeRV-B48
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B52F01-3772/ATCC VR-1162FJ445188Complete genomeRV-B52
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B69F01-2513-Mitchinson/ATCC VR-1179FJ445151Complete genomeRV-B69
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B70F02-2547-TreganzaDQ473489Complete genomeRV-B70
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B72K2207/ATCC VR-1182FJ445153Complete genomeRV-B72
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B79101-1/ATCC VR-1189FJ445155Complete genomeRV-B79
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B83Baylor 7/ATCC VR-1193FJ445161Complete genomeRV-B83
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B84432D/ATCC VR-1194FJ445162Complete genomeRV-B84
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B86121564-Johnson/ATCC VR-1196FJ445164Complete genomeRV-B86
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B91JM1/ATCC VR-1292FJ445168Complete genomeRV-B91
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B92SF-1662/ATCC VR-1293FJ445169Complete genomeRV-B92
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B93SF-1492EF173425Complete genomeRV-B93
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B97SF-1372/ATCC VR-1297FJ445172Complete genomeRV-B97
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B99604/ATCC VR-1299FJ445174Complete genomeRV-B99
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B100CU211 (Thailand/2006)HQ123444Complete coding genomeRV-B100
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B101p1156_sR810_2007JF781500Complete genomeRV-B101
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B102p1044_sR122_2007JX074053Complete genomeRV-B102
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B103p1160_sR1153_2009JN614996Complete genomeRV-B103
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B104F10FJ445137Complete genomeRV-B104
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C1NAT001EF077279NC_038878Complete genomeRV-C1
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C2NAT045EF077280Complete genomeRV-C2
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C3QPMEF186077Complete genomeRV-C3
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C4O24EF582385Complete genomeRV-C4
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C5O25EF582386Complete genomeRV-C5
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C6O26EF582387Complete genomeRV-C6
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C7NY-074(1078)DQ875932Complete genomeRV-C7
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C8N4GQ223227Complete genomeRV-C8
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C9N10GQ223228Complete genomeRV-C9
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C10QCEGQ323774Complete genomeRV-C10
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C11CL-170085EU840952Complete genomeRV-C11
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C12Resp_3922/07HM236958Partial genomeRV-C12
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C13Resp_2951/06HM236908Partial genomeRV-C13
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C14Resp_3090/06HM236911Partial genomeRV-C14
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C15W10 (USA/2007)GU219984Complete genomeRV-C15
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C16ID639T/TAN/2008KR997882Partial genomeRV-C16
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C17Resp_5145/07HM236936Partial genomeRV-C17
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C18Resp_3631/07HM236918Partial genomeRV-C18
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C19CL-Fnp5EU840728Partial genomeRV-C19
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C20Resp_3995/07HM236923Partial genomeRV-C20
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C21Resp_5071/07HM236903Partial genomeRV-C21
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C223430-MY-10KJ675507Complete genomeRV-C22
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C238713-MY-10KJ675506Complete genomeRV-C23
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C24Resp_7147/07HM236939Partial genomeRV-C24
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C25Resp_2832/06HM236952Partial genomeRV-C25
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C26Resp_2514/06HM236904Partial genomeRV-C26
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C27Resp_2784/06HM236906Partial genomeRV-C27
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C28Resp_3105/06HM236954Partial genomeRV-C28
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C29Resp_5345/07HM236949Partial genomeRV-C29
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C30Resp_3898/07HM236968Partial genomeRV-C30
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C31Resp_4923/07HM236964Partial genomeRV-C31
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C32Resp_6131/07HM236897Partial genomeRV-C32
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C33Resp_4917/07HM236934Partial genomeRV-C33
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C34Mex14/Mexico/2014KM486097Complete coding genomeRV-C34
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C35LRTI-metagenomic-1JF436925Complete genomeRV-C35
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C36Resp_2480/07JF416311Partial genomeRV-C36
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C37Resp_6135/08JF416321Partial genomeRV-C37
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C38Resp_6142/08JF416322Partial genomeRV-C38
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C39WA823M02JN205461Complete genomeRV-C39
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C40p1221_sR1448_2009JN815251Complete genomeRV-C40
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C412536/USA/2000KF958311Complete genomeRV-C41
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C421570-MY-10KJ675505Complete genomeRV-C42
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C43p1281_s6410_1999JN815249Complete genomeRV-C43
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C44Resp_15588/09JF416310Partial genomeRV-C44
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C45cpz1-2013/UGAKY624849Complete genomeRV-C45
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C46Resp_5153/07JF416318Partial genomeRV-C46
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C47PNG7254-3947JF519760Partial genomeRV-C47
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C48PNG7293-3193JF519762Partial genomeRV-C48
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C49p1277_s6237_2000JN798566Complete genomeRV-C49
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C50SG1/AUS/2008KF688606Complete genomeRV-C50
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C51LZ508/China/2007JF317015Complete genomeRV-C51
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C54D3490/SPA/2009KP282614Complete genomeRV-C54
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C55ID529T/TAN/2008KR997885Partial genomeRV-C55
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C56JPN/Kumamoto1/2009LC004772Partial genomeRV-C56

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Certain viruses initially reported as novel echoviruses were later shown to have been misidentified. Thus echovirus 8 is the same serotype as echovirus 1, echovirus 10 is now reovirus 1, echovirus 28 is now human rhinovirus A1A, echovirus 22 is now human parechovirus 1, echovirus 23 is now human parechovirus 2. Similarly, coxsackievirus A23 is the same serotype as echovirus 9, and coxsackievirus A15 is the same serotype as coxsackievirus A11 and coxsackievirus A18 is the same serotype as coxsackievirus A13. Hepatitis A virus (genus Hepatovirus) was previously assigned the name enterovirus 72. Human rhinovirus 87 has been found to be a strain of enterovirus D68. A number of simian viruses (SV), previously listed as tentative members of the genus, have been moved to the genus Sapelovirus, species Sapelovirus B and renamed simian sapelovirus (SSV) 1 (formerly SV2), SSV-2 (formerly SV 49) and SSV-3 (formerly SV16, SV-18, SV42, SV44 and SV45). Simian agent 4 (SA4), SV4, SV28 and A2-plaque virus have been assigned to the species Enterovirus H. Simian enteroviruses N125 and N203 have been placed into a new type, enterovirus 108, which has been assigned to the species Enterovirus J, along with enterovirus 103 and simian virus 6. Type SV-47 remains unassigned to a species. Porcine enteroviruses (PEV) belonging to CPE group I (types 1-7 and 11-13) have been moved to the genus Teschovirus, species Teschovirus A, and renamed porcine teschovirus (PTV) 1-10. Members of the defunct species Porcine enterovirus A (PEV type 8; CPE group II) have been moved to the genus Sapelovirus and renamed Sapelovirus A (serotype porcine sapelovirus 1). The defunct species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV types 9, 10; CPE group III) has been renamed Enterovirus G.

Derivation of names

Entero-: from Greek enteron, 'intestine'