Genus: Enterovirus


Genus: Enterovirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.

Virion

Morphology

Crystal structures of many enteroviruses have been resolved (Enterovirus A: coxsackievirus A7, coxsackievirus-A16, enterovirus A71; Enterovirus B: coxsackievirus A9, coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 1, echovirus 7, echovirus 11, echovirus 12, swine vesicular disease virus 1; Enterovirus C: poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2, poliovirus 3, coxsackievirus A21, coxsackievirus A24; Enterovirus D: enterovirus D68; Enterovirus E: enterovirus E1; Rhinovirus A: rhinovirus A1, rhinovirus A2, rhinovirus A16; Rhinovirus B: rhinovirus B14; Rhinovirus C: rhinovirus C15). CPs 1B, 1C and 1D of the human enteroviruses and rhinoviruses are among the largest in the family (VP1-3 chain lengths, 238–302 aa), and this is reflected in the typically long inter-β-strand loops, the larger than average thickness of the capsid wall (46 Å), and a surface relief that is strongly pronounced compared to most other picornaviruses. Encircling a raised area at the 5-fold axis is a 25 Å deep groove, or "canyon", into which the cellular receptor for poliovirus binds. The binding site for the pocket factor lies beneath the floor of this canyon within the 1D β-barrel. Virions can be converted by a variety of treatments (gentle heating, binding to receptor, or some neutralizing antibodies) to altered ('A') particles of 135S which lack 1A (VP4) and possess altered antigenicity.

Physicochemical and physical properties

Acid stability is variable. The virions of most enteroviruses are stable at pH 3.0, while those of rhinoviruses are unstable below pH 5–6. Similarly, the buoyant density in CsCl of the enterovirus virions is 1.30–1.34 g cm-3, while that of rhinoviruses ranges from 1.38 to 1.42 g cm-3. Sometimes a small proportion (about 1% of the population) of heavy particles (density: 1.43 g cm-3) can be observed for enteroviruses. Empty capsids are often observed in virus preparations.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Kitamura et al., 1981, Racaniello and Baltimore 1981, van der Werf et al., 1981): c. 7,100–7,450 nt (5′-UTR: 610–822 nt; ORF: 6,417–6,645 nt; 3′-UTR: 37–99 nt). The genome contains a type I IRES and no poly(C) tract. The cre is located in 2C (members of Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C and Enterovirus D) or 2A (members of Rhinovirus A) or 1D (members of Rhinovirus B) or 1B (members of Enterovirus C). Sequence identities for different enteroviruses, or between enteroviruses and rhinoviruses are more than 50% over the genome as a whole although it may be greater or less than this for particular genomic regions. The 5′-UTR of human rhinoviruses is shorter (ca. 650 nt) than that of enteroviruses, due to a deletion of approximately 100 nt between the IRES and the translation start site. Some members of Enterovirus C and Enterovirus D also have smaller deletions in this region. Members of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F have a non-perfect duplication of the first ~100 nucleotides allowing the formation of a second clover-leaf-like RNA structure. Members of Enterovirus G have an insertion of about 30 nt approximately 65 nt from the 5′-end of the genome resulting in a longer stem-loop D in the cloverleaf structure. Varying size deletions in the same region have been observed in some of the human enteroviruses.

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:

VPg+5′-UTRIRES-I-[1A-1B-1C-1D/2A1pro(/2A2pro)-2B-2C1hel(-2C2pro)/3A-3B-3C-3D]-3′UTR-poly(A)

The deduced polyprotein of enteroviruses ranges from 2,138–2,214 amino acids. Genomes encode no L protein. 2A protein has proteinase activity with an active site cysteine residue (2Apro), which is related to the family of small bacterial serine proteases, cleaves the polyprotein at its own N-terminus. Members of Enterovirus L have a second 2Apro with an active site serine residue. Various strains of Enterovirus G have a porcine torovirus-like cysteine protease-encoding region inserted between the 2C and 3A gene regions. Certain hydrophobic molecules that bind to the capsid in competition with pocket factor exert a powerful antiviral action by interfering with receptor binding and/or uncoating. Antiviral, pocket-binding drugs have been described. 

Antigenicity

Approximately 75 enterovirus serotypes and 100 rhinovirus serotypes have been classified by means of neutralization of infectivity.

Biology

Viruses multiply primarily in the gastrointestinal tract or the upper respiratory tract or sometimes both, but they can also multiply in other tissues, e.g., nerve, muscle, etc. Infection may frequently be asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include common cold, mild meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, myocarditis and conjunctivitis. Swine vesicular disease virus is a variant of coxsackievirus B5 and causes a vesicular disease in pigs clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (genus Aphthovirus) and vesicular disease in pigs caused by Seneca Valley virus (genus Senecavirus). Cap-dependent translation of host mRNA is inhibited by 2Apro, which cleaves the host eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF-4G). Many different cell surface molecules, many of them uncharacterized, serve as viral receptors. Well characterized receptor/virus interactions include poliovirus receptor (PVR) / polioviruses, coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) / coxsackie B viruses, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-l) / “major-group” rhinoviruses and some members of the Enterovirus C species, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) / “minor-group” rhinoviruses, decay-accelerating factor (DAF) / various enteroviruses, integrin VLA-2 / echovirus 1, and sialic acid / enterovirus D70. Poliovirus type 2, a member of the species Enterovirus C, is believed to have been eradicated through human intervention from circulation in human populations. 

Species demarcation criteria

Members of a species of the genus Enterovirus:

  • are less than 30% divergent in polyprotein aa sequence,
  • are less than 40% divergent in P1 aa sequence,
  • are less than 30% divergent in aa sequence of the non-structural proteins 2C + 3CD,
  • utilize a limited range of host cell receptors,
  • infect a limited natural host range,
  • have a genome base composition (G+C) which varies by no more than 2.5%,
  • share a significant degree of compatibility in proteolytic processing, replication,
  • encapsidation and genetic recombination.
  • share a common genome organization. 

The divergence (number of differences per site between sequences) between members of different Enterovirus species ranges from 0.29–0.59 for P1 and 0.1–0.48 for 3CD.

More than 300 virus types have been characterized genetically by phylogenetic clustering (Oberste et al., 1999, Palmenberg et al., 2009, Simmonds et al., 2010, McIntyre et al., 2013). Enterovirus A: 25 types, Enterovirus B: 63 types, Enterovirus C: 23 types, Enterovirus D: 5 types, Enterovirus E: 5 types, Enterovirus F: 7 types, Enterovirus G: 22 types, Enterovirus H: 1 type, Enterovirus I: 1 type, Enterovirus J: 6 types, Enterovirus K: 2 types, Enterovirus L: 1 type, Rhinovirus A: 80 types, Rhinovirus B: 32 types, Rhinovirus C: 57 types. 

Member species

SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviation
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A2Fleetwood (Delaware/47)AY421760NC_038306Complete genomeCVA-2
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A3Olson (New York/48)AY421761CVA-3
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A4High Point (North Carolina/50)AY421762CVA-4
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A5Swartz (New York/50)AY421763CVA-5
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A6GdulaAY421764CVA-6
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A7ParkerAY421765CVA-7
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A8Donovan (New York/49)AY421766CVA-8
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A10Kowalik (New York/50)AY421767CVA-10
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A12Texas 12 (Texas/48)AY421768CVA-12
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A14G-14 (South Africa/50)AY421769CVA-14
Enterovirus Acoxsackievirus A16G-10 (South Africa/51)U05876CVA-16
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A71BrCrU22521EV-A71
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A76FRA91-10369AY697458EV-A76
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A89BAN00-10359AY697459EV-A89
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A90BAN99-10399AY697460EV-A90
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A91BAN00-10406AY697461EV-A91
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A92USA/GA99/RJg-7EF667344EV-A92
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A114V13-0285/IND/2013KU355876EV-A114
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A119hu/09C13CMR (Cameroon)KC787153EV-A119
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A120MAD-2741-11 (Madagascar)LK021688EV-A120
Enterovirus Aenterovirus A121V13-0682/IND/2013KU355877EV-A121
Enterovirus Asimian virus 19M19sAF326754SV19
Enterovirus Asimian virus 43OM112tAF326761SV43
Enterovirus Asimian virus 46OM22AF326764SV46
Enterovirus Ababoon enterovirus A13A13AF326750BabEV-A13
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B3Nancy (Connecticut/US/49)M88483NC_038307Complete genomeCVB-3
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B1JapanM16560CVB-1
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B2Ohio-1 (Ohio/US/47)AF081485CVB-2
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B4JVB (New York/US/51) (Benschoten)X05690CVB-4
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B5Faulkner (Kentucky/US/52)AF114383CVB-5
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus B6Schmitt (Philippines/53) (1-15-21)AF039205CVB-6
Enterovirus Bcoxsackievirus A9GriggsD00627CVA-9
Enterovirus Bechovirus 1Farouk (Egypt/51)AF029859E-1
Enterovirus Bechovirus 1; echovirus 8Bryson (Ohio)AF250874E-1
Enterovirus Bechovirus 2Cornelis (Connecticut/US/51)AY302545E-2
Enterovirus Bechovirus 3Morrisey (Connecticut/US/51)AY302553E-3
Enterovirus Bechovirus 4Pesacek (Connecticut/US/51)AY302557E-4
Enterovirus Bechovirus 5Noyce (Maine/54)AF083069E-5
Enterovirus Bechovirus 6D'Amori (Rhode Island/55)AY302558E-6
Enterovirus Bechovirus 7Wallace (Ohio)AY302559E-7
Enterovirus Bechovirus 9Hill (Ohio/US/53)X84981E-9
Enterovirus Bechovirus 11Gregory (Ohio)X80059E-11
Enterovirus Bechovirus 12Travis (Philippines/53)X79047E-12
Enterovirus Bechovirus 13Del Carmen (Philippines/53)AY302539E-13
Enterovirus Bechovirus 14Tow (Rhode Island/54)AY302540E-14
Enterovirus Bechovirus 15Ch 96-51 (Charleston) (West Virginia/51)AY302541E-15
Enterovirus Bechovirus 16Harrington (Massachusetts/51)AY302542E-16
Enterovirus Bechovirus 17CHHE-29 (Mexico City)AY302543E-17
Enterovirus Bechovirus 18Metcalf (Ohio)AF317694E-18
Enterovirus Bechovirus 19Burke (Ohio)AY302544E-19
Enterovirus Bechovirus 20JV-1 (Washington DC/55)AY302546E-20
Enterovirus Bechovirus 21Farina (E26D) (Massachusetts/50)AY302547E-21
Enterovirus Bechovirus 24DeCamp (Ohio/56)AY302548E-24
Enterovirus Bechovirus 25JV-4 (Washington DC/57)AY302549E-25
Enterovirus Bechovirus 26Coronel (11-3-6) (Philippines/53)AY302550E-26
Enterovirus Bechovirus 27Bacon (1-36-4) (Philippines/53)AY302551E-27
Enterovirus Bechovirus 29JV-10 (Washington DC/55)AY302552E-29
Enterovirus Bechovirus 30Bastianni (New York/58)AF162711E-30
Enterovirus Bechovirus 31Caldwell (Kansas/55)AY302554E-31
Enterovirus Bechovirus 32PR-10 (Puerto Rico)AY302555E-32
Enterovirus Bechovirus 33Toluca-3 (Mexico/59)AY302556E-33
Enterovirus Benterovirus B69Toluca-1 (Mexico/59)AY302560EV-B69
Enterovirus Benterovirus B73CA55-1988AF241359EV-B73
Enterovirus Benterovirus B74USA/CA75-10213AY556057EV-B74
Enterovirus Benterovirus B75USA/OK85-10362AY556070EV-B75
Enterovirus Benterovirus B77CF496-99AJ493062EV-B77
Enterovirus Benterovirus B78Agius-W137-126/99AY208120EV-B78
Enterovirus Benterovirus B79USA/CA79-10384AY843297EV-B79
Enterovirus Benterovirus B80USA/CA67-10387AY843298EV-B80
Enterovirus Benterovirus B81USA/CA68-10389AY843299EV-B81
Enterovirus Benterovirus B82USA/CA64-10390AY843300EV-B82
Enterovirus Benterovirus B83USA/CA76-10392AY843301EV-B83
Enterovirus Benterovirus B84CIV2003-10603DQ902712EV-B84
Enterovirus Benterovirus B85BAN00-10353AY843303EV-B85
Enterovirus Benterovirus B86BAN00-10354AY843304EV-B86
Enterovirus Benterovirus B87BAN00-10396AY843305EV-B87
Enterovirus Benterovirus B88BAN01-10398AY843306EV-B88
Enterovirus Benterovirus B9338-03 (DR Congo)KM273013EV-B93
Enterovirus Benterovirus B97BAN99-10355AY843307EV-B97
Enterovirus Benterovirus B98T92-1499AB426608EV-B98
Enterovirus Benterovirus B100BAN2000-10500DQ902713EV-B100
Enterovirus Benterovirus B101CIV03-10361AY843308EV-B101
Enterovirus Benterovirus B106148/YN/CHN/12 (China/2012)KF990476EV-B106
Enterovirus Benterovirus B107TN94-0349AB426609EV-B107
Enterovirus Benterovirus B110LM1861 (chimpanzee/Cameroon/2006)JF416928; JF416931; JF416934; JF416937EV-B110
Enterovirus Benterovirus B111Q0011/XZ/CHN/2000KF312882EV-B111
Enterovirus Benterovirus B112GAB130 (chimpanzee/Gabon)KJ418244EV-B112
Enterovirus Benterovirus B113GAB653 (mandrill/Gabon)KJ701249EV-B113
Enterovirus Bsimian agent 5B165 (vervet monkey)AF326751SA5
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 1MahoneyV01149NC_002058Complete genomePV-1
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 1Sabin (LSc-2ab)V01150PV-1
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 2Lansing (Michigan/37)M12197PV-2
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 2Sabin (P712- Ch-2ab)X00595PV-2
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 3Leon (California/37)K01392PV-3
Enterovirus Cpoliovirus 3Sabin (Leon 12a-1-b)X00925PV-3
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A1T.T. (Tompkins) (Coxsackie/NY/47)AF499635CVA-1
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A11Belgium 1 (Belgium/51)AF499636CVA-11
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A13Flores (Mexico/52)AF499637CVA-13
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A13; coxsackievirus A18G-13 (South Africa/50)AF499640CVA-13
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A17G12 (South Africa/51AF499639CVA-17
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A19NIH-8663 (Dohi) (Japan/52)AF499641CVA-19
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A20IH-35 (New York/55)AF499642CVA-20
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A21Kuykendall (California/52)AF546702CVA-21
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A22Chulman (New York/55)AF499643CVA-22
Enterovirus Ccoxsackievirus A24JosephEF026081CVA-24
Enterovirus Centerovirus C95T08-083/Chad/2008JX417822EV-C95
Enterovirus Centerovirus C96BAN00-10499EF015886EV-C96
Enterovirus Centerovirus C99USA-GA84-10636EF555644EV-C99
Enterovirus Centerovirus C102BAN99-10424EF555645EV-C102
Enterovirus Centerovirus C104CL-1231094 FLEU840733EV-C104
Enterovirus Centerovirus C105PER153 (Peru/2010)JX393302EV-C105
Enterovirus Centerovirus C109NICA08-4327GQ865517EV-C109
Enterovirus Centerovirus C113BBD-48/Bangladesh/2009KC344833EV-C113
Enterovirus Centerovirus C116126/Russia/2010JX514942EV-C116
Enterovirus Centerovirus C117LIT22/Vilnius (Lithuania/2011)JX262382EV-C117
Enterovirus Centerovirus C118ISR10 (Israel/2011)JX961708EV-C118
Enterovirus Denterovirus D68FermonAY426531NC_038308Complete genomeEV-D68
Enterovirus Denterovirus D68; human rhinovirus 87F02-3607-CornAY355268EV-D68
Enterovirus Denterovirus D70J670/71 (Japan/71)D00820EV-D70
Enterovirus Denterovirus D94E210 (Egypt)DQ916376EV-D94
Enterovirus Denterovirus D111KK2640 (chimpanzee/Cameroon/2006)JF416929; JF416932; JF416935; JF416938EV-D111
Enterovirus Denterovirus D120MB6201 (gorilla/Cameroon)KF040080EV-D120
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E1; bovine enterovirus 1VG-5-27D00214NC_001859Complete genomeEV-E1
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E2PS42 (ATCC VR-758)DQ092792EV-E2
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E3D 14/3/96 (Germany/1996)DQ092786EV-E3
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E4PAK-NIH-21E5 (sewage/Karachi/2009)JQ690748; JQ690741EV-E4
Enterovirus Eenterovirus E5MexKSU/5 (Mexico/2015)KU172420EV-E5
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F1; bovine enterovirus 2BEV-261-M2-RM2DQ092770NC_021220Complete genomeEV-F1
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F2PS89DQ092795EV-F2
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F3PS87/Belfast (ATCC VR-774)DQ092794EV-F3
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F4W1 (brushtail possum/New Zealand)AY462106EV-F4
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F5M80 (Norfolk/England/1960)EV-F5
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F6T11f (Great Britain/1960)EV-F6
Enterovirus Fenterovirus F7AN12/Bos Taurus/JPN/2014LC038188EV-F7
Enterovirus Genterovirus G1; porcine enterovirus 9UKG/410/73AF363453NC_004441Complete genomeEV-G1
Enterovirus Genterovirus G2; formerly enterovirus 10LP54 (England/75)AF363455EV-G2
Enterovirus Genterovirus G3sw/K23/2008/HUNHQ702854EV-G3
Enterovirus Genterovirus G4wild boar/WBD/2011/HUNJN807387EV-G4
Enterovirus Genterovirus G5Ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUNJQ277724EV-G5
Enterovirus Genterovirus G6sw/2009/KORJQ818253EV-G6
Enterovirus Genterovirus G7ovine/990/UK-NIMG958646EV-G7
Enterovirus Genterovirus G8sw/714418/CaoLanh_VN/2012-02-21KT265911EV-G8
Enterovirus Genterovirus G9734087/ThanBinh_VN/2012-03-20KT265961EV-G9
Enterovirus Genterovirus G10sw/PoEnV-BEL-12R021KP982873EV-G10
Enterovirus Genterovirus G11sw/744257/2012/VietnamKJ156451EV-G11
Enterovirus Genterovirus G12sw/714222/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-16KT265900EV-G12
Enterovirus Genterovirus G13sw/714270/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-16KT265903EV-G13
Enterovirus Genterovirus G14sw/714405/CaoLanh/VN/2012-02-21KT265909EV-G14
Enterovirus Genterovirus G15sw/724307/CaoLanh/VN/2012-03-14KT265941EV-G15
Enterovirus Genterovirus G16wild boar/BS14-17H2/DakLak_VN/2014KT266010EV-G16
Enterovirus Genterovirus G17sw/08/NC_USA/2015KY761948EV-G17
Enterovirus Genterovirus G18sw/GER/F26-2/23-12-2013MF113370EV-G18
Enterovirus Genterovirus G19sw/Ger/F8-2/04-02-2013MF113372EV-G19
Enterovirus Genterovirus G20goat/JL14/CHA/2014KU297674EV-G20
Enterovirus Henterovirus H; simian enterovirus1715 UWBAF326759NC_038309Complete genomeEV-H
Enterovirus Ienterovirus I1; dromedary camel enterovirus19CCKP345887NC_038310Complete genomeEV-I1
Enterovirus Ienterovirus I2; dromedary camel enterovirus 220CCKP345888EV-I2
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J1SV6-1631AF326766NC_010415Complete genomeEV-J1
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J103USA/GA99-POo-1FJ007373EV-J103
Enterovirus Jenterovirus J108N125AF414372EV-J108
Enterovirus Kenterovirus K1Rodent/Ee/PicoV/NX2015KX156158NC_038989Complete coding genomeEV-K1
Enterovirus Kenterovirus K2Rodent/Mc/PicoV/Tibet2015KX156159EV-K2
Enterovirus Lenterovirus L1Macaca mulatta/SEV-gx/2014/ChinaKU587555NC_029905Complete genomeEV-L1
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1VR-1559FJ445111NC_038311Complete genomeRV-A1
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1BB632D00239RV-A1B
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A2HGPX02316RV-A2
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A768CV11DQ473503RV-A7
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A8MRH-CV12FJ445113RV-A8
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A9211-CV13-ATCC VR489FJ445177RV-A9
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A10204-CV14DQ473498RV-A10
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A111-CV15EF173414RV-A11
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A12181-CV16EF173415RV-A12
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A13353 (South Carolina/59)FJ445116RV-A13
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A151734 (South Carolina/60)DQ473493RV-A15
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A1611757 (Washington DC/60)L24917RV-A16
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A185986-CV17FJ445118RV-A18
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A19ATCC VR-1129FJ445119RV-A19
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A20ATCC VR-1130FJ445120RV-A20
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A21ATCC VR-1131FJ445121RV-A21
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A22ATCC VR-1132FJ445122RV-A22
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A235124-CV24DQ473497RV-A23
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A245146-CV25EF173416RV-A24
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A25ATCC VR-1135FJ445123RV-A25
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A286101-CV29DQ473508RV-A28
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A29ATCC VR-1139FJ445125RV-A29
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A30106FDQ473512RV-A30
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A31ATCC VR-506FJ445126RV-A31
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A32ATCC VR-1142FJ445127RV-A32
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A33ATCC VR-330FJ445128RV-A33
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A34137-3DQ473501RV-A34
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A36342HDQ473505RV-A36
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A38CH79DQ473495RV-A38
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A39209 (Maryland/62)AY751783RV-A39
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A40ATCC VR-341FJ445129RV-A40
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A4156110 (North Carolina/61)DQ473491RV-A41
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A43ATCC VR-1153FJ445131RV-A43
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A45ATCC VR-1155FJ445132RV-A45
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A46Crell (Baylor 2) (Texas/64)DQ473506RV-A46
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A47ATCC VR-1157FJ445133RV-A47
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A498213DQ473496RV-A49
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A50ATCC VR-517FJ445135RV-A50
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A51ATCC VR-1161FJ445136RV-A51
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A53F01-3928DQ473507RV-A53
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A54ATCC VR-1165FJ445138RV-A54
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A55Wis315E (Wisconsin/64)DQ473511RV-A55
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A56CH82 [V-151-011-021]FJ445140RV-A56
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A57fs ship-No.1-hrv-57FJ445141RV-A57
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A58ATCC VR-1168FJ445142RV-A58
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A59611-CV35DQ473500RV-A59
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A60ATCC VR-1473FJ445143RV-A60
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A61ATCC VR-1171FJ445144RV-A61
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A62ATCC VR-1172FJ445145RV-A62
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A63ATCC VR-1173FJ445146RV-A63
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A646258-CV44EF173417RV-A64
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A65ATCC VR-1175FJ445147RV-A65
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A66ATCC VR-1176FJ445148RV-A66
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A67ATCC VR-1177FJ445149RV-A67
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A68ATCC VR-1178FJ445150RV-A68
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A71ATCC VR-1181FJ445152RV-A71
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A73107EDQ473492RV-A73
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A74328ADQ473494RV-A74
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A75328FDQ473510RV-A75
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A76H00062DQ473502RV-A76
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A77ATCC VR-1187FJ445154RV-A77
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A782030-65EF173418RV-A78
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A80ATCC VR-1190FJ445156RV-A80
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A81ATCC VR-1191FJ445157RV-A81
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A82Santa Cruz (California)DQ473509RV-A82
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A85ATCC VR-1195FJ445163RV-A85
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A88CVD 01-0165-DambrauskasDQ473504RV-A88
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A8941467-GalloM16248RV-A89
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A90ATCC VR-1291FJ445167RV-A90
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A94SF-1803EF173419RV-A94
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A96ATCC VR-1296FJ445171RV-A96
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A100ATCC VR-1300FJ445175RV-A100
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A101hrv-A101GQ415051RV-A101
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A102AMS323EF155421RV-A102
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A103WA327E/09JF965515RV-A103
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A104p1025_sR2625_2009JN562727RV-A104
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A105p1064_sR985_2009JN614995RV-A105
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A106p1044_sR114_2008JQ245971RV-A106
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A107S07259KC859319RV-A107
Rhinovirus Ahuman rhinovirus A108S07696KC859318RV-A108
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B3FEBDQ473485NC_038312Complete genomeRV-B3
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B416/60DQ473490RV-B4
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B5Norman/ATCC VR-485FJ445112RV-B5
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B6ThompsonDQ473486RV-B6
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B141059 (South Carolina/59)K02121RV-B14
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B1733342 (North Carolina/59)EF173420RV-B17
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B265660-CV27/ATCC VR-1136FJ445124RV-B26
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B275870-CV28/ATCC VR-1137FJ445186RV-B27
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B35164ADQ473487RV-B35
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B37151-1EF173423RV-B37
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B4256822 (North Carolina/61)/ATCC VR-338FJ445130RV-B42
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B481505DQ473488RV-B48
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B52F01-3772/ATCC VR-1162FJ445188RV-B52
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B69F01-2513-Mitchinson/ATCC VR-1179FJ445151RV-B69
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B70F02-2547-TreganzaDQ473489RV-B70
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B72K2207/ATCC VR-1182FJ445153RV-B72
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B79101-1/ATCC VR-1189FJ445155RV-B79
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B83Baylor 7/ATCC VR-1193FJ445161RV-B83
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B84432D/ATCC VR-1194FJ445162RV-B84
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B86121564-Johnson/ATCC VR-1196FJ445164RV-B86
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B91JM1/ATCC VR-1292FJ445168RV-B91
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B92SF-1662/ATCC VR-1293FJ445169RV-B92
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B93SF-1492EF173425RV-B93
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B97SF-1372/ATCC VR-1297FJ445172RV-B97
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B99604/ATCC VR-1299FJ445174RV-B99
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B100CU211 (Thailand/2006)HQ123444RV-B100
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B101p1156_sR810_2007JF781500RV-B101
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B102p1044_sR122_2007JX074053RV-B102
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B103p1160_sR1153_2009JN614996RV-B103
Rhinovirus Bhuman rhinovirus B104F10FJ445137RV-B104
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C1NAT001EF077279NC_038878Complete genomeRV-C1
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C2NAT045EF077280RV-C2
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C3QPMEF186077RV-C3
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C4O24EF582385RV-C4
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C5O25EF582386RV-C5
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C6O26EF582387RV-C6
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C7NY-074(1078)DQ875932RV-C7
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C8N4GQ223227RV-C8
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C9N10GQ223228RV-C9
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C10QCEGQ323774RV-C10
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C11CL-170085EU840952RV-C11
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C12Resp_3922/07HM236958RV-C12
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C13Resp_2951/06HM236908RV-C13
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C14Resp_3090/06HM236911RV-C14
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C15W10 (USA/2007)GU219984RV-C15
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C16ID639T/TAN/2008KR997882RV-C16
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C17Resp_5145/07HM236936RV-C17
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C18Resp_3631/07HM236918RV-C18
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C19CL-Fnp5EU840728RV-C19
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C20Resp_3995/07HM236923RV-C20
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C21Resp_5071/07HM236903RV-C21
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C223430-MY-10KJ675507RV-C22
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C238713-MY-10KJ675506RV-C23
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C24Resp_7147/07HM236939RV-C24
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C25Resp_2832/06HM236952RV-C25
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C26Resp_2514/06HM236904RV-C26
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C27Resp_2784/06HM236906RV-C27
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C28Resp_3105/06HM236954RV-C28
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C29Resp_5345/07HM236949RV-C29
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C30Resp_3898/07HM236968RV-C30
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C31Resp_4923/07HM236964RV-C31
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C32Resp_6131/07HM236897RV-C32
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C33Resp_4917/07HM236934RV-C33
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C34Mex14/Mexico/2014KM486097RV-C34
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C35LRTI-metagenomic-1JF436925RV-C35
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C36Resp_2480/07JF416311RV-C36
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C37Resp_6135/08JF416321RV-C37
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C38Resp_6142/08JF416322RV-C38
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C39WA823M02JN205461RV-C39
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C40p1221_sR1448_2009JN815251RV-C40
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C412536/USA/2000KF958311RV-C41
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C421570-MY-10KJ675505RV-C42
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C43p1281_s6410_1999JN815249RV-C43
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C44Resp_15588/09JF416310RV-C44
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C45cpz1-2013/UGAKY624849RV-C45
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C46Resp_5153/07JF416318RV-C46
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C47PNG7254-3947JF519760RV-C47
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C48PNG7293-3193JF519762RV-C48
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C49p1277_s6237_2000JN798566RV-C49
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C50SG1/AUS/2008KF688606RV-C50
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C51LZ508/China/2007JF317015RV-C51
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C54D3490/SPA/2009KP282614RV-C54
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C55ID529T/TAN/2008KR997885RV-C55
Rhinovirus Chuman rhinovirus C56JPN/Kumamoto1/2009LC004772RV-C56

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Certain viruses initially reported as novel echoviruses were later shown to have been misidentified. Thus echovirus 8 is the same serotype as echovirus 1, echovirus 10 is now reovirus 1, echovirus 28 is now human rhinovirus A1A, echovirus 22 is now human parechovirus 1, echovirus 23 is now human parechovirus 2. Similarly, coxsackievirus A23 is the same serotype as echovirus 9, and coxsackievirus A15 is the same serotype as coxsackievirus A11 and coxsackievirus A18 is the same serotype as coxsackievirus A13. Hepatitis A virus (genus Hepatovirus) was previously assigned the name enterovirus 72. Human rhinovirus 87 has been found to be a strain of enterovirus D68. A number of simian viruses (SV), previously listed as tentative members of the genus, have been moved to the genus Sapelovirus, species Sapelovirus B and renamed simian sapelovirus (SSV) 1 (formerly SV2), SSV-2 (formerly SV 49) and SSV-3 (formerly SV16, SV-18, SV42, SV44 and SV45). Simian agent 4 (SA4), SV4, SV28 and A2-plaque virus have been assigned to the species Enterovirus H. Simian enteroviruses N125 and N203 have been placed into a new type, enterovirus 108, which has been assigned to the species Enterovirus J, along with enterovirus 103 and simian virus 6. Type SV-47 remains unassigned to a species. Porcine enteroviruses (PEV) belonging to CPE group I (types 1-7 and 11-13) have been moved to the genus Teschovirus, species Teschovirus A, and renamed porcine teschovirus (PTV) 1-10. Members of the defunct species Porcine enterovirus A (PEV type 8; CPE group II) have been moved to the genus Sapelovirus and renamed Sapelovirus A (serotype porcine sapelovirus 1). The defunct species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV types 9, 10; CPE group III) has been renamed Enterovirus G.

Derivation of names

Entero-: from Greek enteron, 'intestine'