Genus: Cosavirus

Genus: Cosavirus

Distinguishing features

The genus is distinguished on the basis of genetic characters.



No details are available on the morphology of the virions.

Nucleic acid

Genome (Holtz et al., 2008, Kapoor et al., 2008a, Blinkova et al., 2009, Cotten et al., 2014, Kapusinszky et al., 2012): c. 7,632–7,802 nt (5′-UTR: up to 1,361 nt; ORF: 6,366–6,402 nt; 3′-UTR: 75–93 nt). The location of the cre has not been identified.

Genome organization and replication

Genome layout:


The deduced polyproteins are of 2,113–2,133 amino acids. There is no L protein. 2A is a short foot-and-mouth disease virus-like polypeptide (NPG¯P). Sequence data (e.g., JN867757, KM516909) suggest interspecies recombination (Kapusinszky et al., 2012).


See discussion under family description.


Known natural hosts are humans and pigs. Viral RNA was detected in faeces and pharyngeal swabs of diseased and clinically healthy humans and pigs.

Species demarcation criteria

Members of a species of the genus Cosavirus:

  • are less than 35% divergent in P1 aa sequence,
  • are less than 10% divergent in 2C + 3CD aa sequence,
  • share a common genome organization.

The divergence (number of differences per site between sequences) of different cosavirus species ranges from 0.4–0.53 for P1 and 0.22–0.37 for 3CD.

Sequence data of capsid protein-encoding gene regions indicate at least 35 types within these species (CoSV-A1 to -A25, CoS-V-B1, tentative CoSV-C1, CoSV-D1 to -D5, CoSV-E1, -E2, CoSV-F1).

Member species

SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviation
Cosavirus Acosavirus A1553FJ438902NC_012800Complete genomeCoSV-A1
Cosavirus Acosavirus A26344 (human/Pakistan)FJ438903CoSV-A2
Cosavirus Acosavirus A36572 (human/Pakistan)FJ438904CoSV-A3
Cosavirus Acosavirus A45006 (human/Pakistan)FJ438905; FJ438906CoSV-A4
Cosavirus Acosavirus A5NG6 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867771CoSV-A5
Cosavirus Acosavirus A6TN06-s231 (human/Tunisia/2006)JN867790CoSV-A6
Cosavirus Acosavirus A7NP11 (human/Nepal)JN867768CoSV-A7
Cosavirus Acosavirus A8NG8 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867776CoSV-A8
Cosavirus Acosavirus A9NP5 (human/Nepal)JN867763CoSV-A9
Cosavirus Acosavirus A10NG11 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867772CoSV-A10
Cosavirus Acosavirus A11NP1 (human/Nepal)JN867760CoSV-A11
Cosavirus Acosavirus A12NG14 (human/Nigeria)JN867774CoSV-A12
Cosavirus Acosavirus A13NP6 (human/Nepal)JN867764CoSV-A13
Cosavirus Acosavirus A14NG12 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867773CoSV-A14
Cosavirus Acosavirus A15NG23 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867780CoSV-A15
Cosavirus Acosavirus A16NP10 (human/Nepal)JN867767CoSV-A16
Cosavirus Acosavirus A17NG3 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867769CoSV-A17
Cosavirus Acosavirus A18NG15 (human/Nigeria)JN867775CoSV-A18
Cosavirus Acosavirus A19PK6187 (human/Pakistan/2006)JN867759CoSV-A19
Cosavirus Acosavirus A20NG263 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867756CoSV-A20
Cosavirus Acosavirus A21NG295-2 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811826CoSV-A21
Cosavirus Acosavirus A22NG295-1 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811825CoSV-A22
Cosavirus Acosavirus A23NP8-1 (human/Nepal)JQ811821CoSV-A23
Cosavirus Acosavirus A24NG213-1 (human/Nigeria/2007)JQ811830CoSV-A24
Cosavirus Bcosavirus B2663FJ438907NC_012801Complete genomeCoSV-B
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D15004FJ438908NC_012802Complete genomeCoSV-D1
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D2NP4 (human/Nepal)JN867762CoSV-D2
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D3NG29 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867777CoSV-D3
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D4NP3 (human/Nepal)JN867761CoSV-D4
Cosavirus Dcosavirus D5NG19 (human/Nigeria/2007)JN867778CoSV-D5
Cosavirus Ecosavirus EAustralia/81FJ555055NC_012798Complete genomeCoSV-E
Cosavirus Fcosavirus FPK5006JN867758NC_034385Complete genomeCoSV-F

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Establishment of Cosavirus C is pending due to incomplete virus sequences.

Derivation of names

Cosa-: from common stool-associated

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

cosavirus C [hu/5152]



Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.