Genus: Metapneumovirus

Genus: Metapneumovirus

Distinguishing features

Members of the genus Metapneumovirus  possess 8 genes. They lack the two promoter proximal NS1 and NS2 genes found in the members of the genus Orthopneumovirus. The gene order is N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L. Alignment of the L proteins of the metapneumoviruses shows a moderate level of conservation between the human and avian viruses. Their genome length is smaller than that of the members of the other genus.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

Metapneumovirus species are distinguished on the basis of having an avian or human host. As noted, antigenic and sequence relatedness also distinguishes AMPV subgroups A, B, and D from HMPV; but AMPV subgroup C is more closely related to HMPV than to AMPV A, B, and D. Thus, antigenic and sequence relatedness do not consistently distinguish between HMPV and AMPV. The G attachment protein exhibits a high level of inter-strain diversity (up to 63% amino acid identity difference).

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Avian metapneumovirusavian metapneumovirusA; LAH AAY640317NC_039231Complete genomeAMPV
Avian metapneumovirusavian metapneumovirusB; VC03/60616AB548428Complete genomeAMPV
Avian metapneumovirusavian metapneumovirus; Turkey rhinotracheitis virusC; ColoradoAY590688Complete genomeAMPV
Avian metapneumovirusavian metapneumovirusD; Turkey/1985/Fr85.1HG934339Complete genomeAMPV
Human metapneumovirushuman metapneumovirusA1; 00-1AF371337NC_039199Complete genomeHMPV
Human metapneumovirushuman metapneumovirusA2; NL/00/17FJ168779Complete genomeHMPV
Human metapneumovirushuman metapneumovirusB1; NL/1/99AY525843Complete genomeHMPV
Human metapneumovirushuman metapneumovirusB2; NL/94/01FJ168778Complete genomeHMPV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.