Pacuvirus genomes encode four structural proteins: the RNA-directed RNA polymerase/endonuclease L, the glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and the nucleoprotein N (Table 2.Peribunyaviridae; Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae). Viruses in the genus encode putative non-structural (NS) NSm proteins, but not NSs protein (Rodrigues et al., 2014).
Genome organization and replication
The pacuvirus genome is similar to the genomes of all other viruses in the family. The L segment encodes the L protein, the M segment encodes the glycoproteins Gn and Gc and the non-structural protein NSm, and the S segment encodes N; the genome does not encode an NSs protein (Table 2.Peribunyaviridae; Figure 1.Pacuvirus) (Rodrigues et al., 2014).
Figure 1.Pacuvirus. Pacuvirus coding strategy. vcRNAs are depicted in 3'→5' direction and mRNAs are depicted in a 5'→3' direction. The mRNAs depict ORFs that encode the N, nucleocapsid protein; Gn and Gc, external glycoproteins; L, large protein, as well as the non-structural protein NSm.
Replication and morphogenesis in the Golgi are likely to be similar to that of other members of the family; however, this has not been thoroughly examined (see ‘Genome organisation and replication’ on the family page).
The glycoproteins and nucleocapsid protein can elicit an antibody response (Aitken et al., 1975). Where studied, pacuviruses do not react by complement fixation with many orthobunyaviruses (Tesh et al., 1975, Travassos da Rosa et al., 1983).
Pacuviruses have been isolated from psychodid sandflies and from rodents in Brazil (Rodrigues et al., 2014, Aitken et al., 1975). Serological surveys have found antibodies to Pacui virus in rodents and marsupials, but not in humans (Aitken et al., 1975). Pacui virus was originally assigned to the genus Phlebovirus due to the association with sandflies; however, recent sequence analyses have determined that pacuviruses have genomes organized similar to that of the orthobunyaviruses (Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae; (Rodrigues et al., 2014).
Derivation of names
Pacuvirus is derived from Pacui virus.
Species demarcation criteria
Species are defined by:
- a species is defined by a pairwise evolutionary distance value of greater than 0.1 when using the WAG substitution model on concatenated amino acid sequences of all three segments (Piet and Kuhn 2018)
|Species||Virus name||Isolate||Accession number||RefSeq number||Available sequence||Virus Abbrev.|
|Caimito pacuvirus||Caimito virus||VP-488A||L: MK330759;|
|Chilibre pacuvirus||Chilibre virus||VP-118D||L: MK330762;|
|Pacui pacuvirus||Pacui virus||BEAN27326||L: KM225254;|
|Rio Preto da Eva pacuvirus||Rio Preto da Eva virus||BEAR540870||L: KM225257;|
|Tapirape pacuvirus||Tapirapé virus||BEAN767592||L: KM225260;|
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.
Related, unclassified viruses