Genus: Orthobunyavirus

Genus: Orthobunyavirus

Distinguishing features

Orthobunyaviruses have a wide geographic and host range, although individual viruses may be restricted to a small number of host species. Viruses in the genus form a monophyletic clade upon comparison of L protein amino acid sequences, and encode an NSm, and often an NSs protein. Segment reassortment is well-described among related strains and has been associated with disease emergence.

Virion 

Morphology

Orthobunyavirions are spherical or pleomorphic in shape and 80−120 nm in diameter (Martin et al., 1985). The enveloped surface (about 5 nm thick) has projections of glycoprotein heterodimers (Gn and Gc) about 18 nm long with an estimated 650 copies per virion (Talmon et al., 1987). The surface is a closely packed lattice of glycoprotein Gn-Gc spikes organized in a tripod-like order (Bowden et al., 2013). Structural analysis has revealed that the N-terminal variable half of the Gc glycoprotein is composed of two domains: a 27 kDa α-helical head domain and a stalk that is divided into two identically folded 19 kDa tandem β-sandwiches (Hellert et al., 2019). The projecting spike is also the major target of the neutralizing antibody response (Hellert et al., 2019).

Nucleic acid

Orthobunyaviruses have the peribunyavirus-typical tripartite, negative-sense genome organization. The terminal nucleotides of each segment (S, M, and L) occur in a canonical, conserved sequence (in coding sense) 5′-AGTAGTGT…ACACTACT-3′. As with other peribunyaviruses, genomic vRNAs are not polyadenylated nor are they modified at the 5′-end. Viral mRNAs are not polyadenylated, are truncated relative to the vRNA (Abraham and Pattnaik 1983, Eshita et al., 1985). mRNAs possess a 5′-methylated cap derived from host mRNA via “cap snatching”, which is mediated by the endonuclease function of the L protein (Reguera et al., 2010).

Proteins

Like other peribunyaviruses, all orthobunyavirions contain of four structural proteins: Gn, Gc, nucleocapsid (N), and RNA-directed RNA polymerase/endonuclease protein (L) (Figure 1.Peribunyaviridae, Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae; Table 2.Peribunyaviridae). Non-structural proteins (NSs and NSm) are encoded in the S and the M segments of some orthobunyaviruses (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus; Table 2.Peribunyaviridae).

Lipids

Orthobunyavirion lipids are derived from the host membranes where viruses mature, and include phospholipids, sterols, fatty acids, and glycolipids. Virions contain 20–30% lipids by weight (Bishop et al., 1980).

Carbohydrates

Orthobunyavirions may contain asparagine-linked mannose sugars on the Gn and Gc proteins when grown in vertebrate cells. Carbohydrates make up 7% of the virion weight (Bishop et al., 1980).

Genome organization and replication

The S segment encodes N, and may encode the non-structural protein NSs in an overlapping ORF downstream (Fuller et al., 1983) or upstream of the  N protein initiation codon (Aguilar et al., 2018) (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus). However, not all orthobunyaviruses encode NSs (de Melo et al., 2018, Mohamed et al., 2009). The M segment encodes Gn and Gc proteins (Fazakerley et al., 1988) (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus), that are co-translationally cleaved by host signalase (Fazakerley and Ross 1989) and signal peptide peptidase (Shi et al., 2016). Orthobunyaviruses also encode an NSm protein between the Gn and Gc coding regions (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus). The L segment encodes for the L protein (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus).

Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus. Orthobunyavirus coding strategy. vcRNAs are depicted in 3'→5' direction and mRNAs are depicted in a 5'→3' direction. The mRNAs depict ORFs that encode the N, nucleocapsid protein; Gn and Gc, external glycoproteins; L, large protein, as well as the non-structural proteins NSs and NSm.

Replication, morphogenesis, assembly, and budding are similar to that of all described peribunyaviruses (see ‘Genome organisation and replication’ on the family page).

Biology

The genus Orthobunyavirus is the largest and most diverse in the family including 103 species, members of which occur globally in tropical, temperate and arctic ecological niches. Although a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts are described for viruses of the genus, each virus posseses a restricted arthropod and host range (Beaty and Calisher 1991), which in turn limits its geographic distribution (Calisher 1996). However, some viruses share common hosts and overlapping geographies. Orthobunyaviruses have been isolated from many different vertebrate hosts including squirrels (La Crosse virus), bats (Mojuí dos Campos virus), rabbits (snowshoe hare virus), ungulates (Akabane virus), sloths (Oropouche virus), and birds (Mermet virus). Most orthobunyaviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. However, biting midges, bed bugs, and wingless bat flies are also known vectors. Some strains are known to be maintained in the arthropod host through transovarial transmission (Watts et al., 1974). Orthobunyaviruses are associated with a broad spectrum of human disease, including encephalitides (e.g., La Crosse virus), febrile illnesses (e.g., Bunyamwera virus), and viral haemorrhagic fever (e.g., Ngari virus Garissa variant). Adverse veterinary outcomes include fetal abnormalities and abortion storms among livestock (e.g., Cache Valley and Schmallenberg viruses). Coinfection with more than one orthobunyavirus resulting in the reassortment of genomic segments has been reported in both laboratory and natural settings (Cheng et al., 1999, Nunes et al., 2005, Yanase et al., 2012, Beaty et al., 1981, Bishop and Beaty 1988, Borucki et al., 1999, Briese et al., 2007, Beaty et al., 1985). Mosquitoes are reservoirs for the reassortment of genomic segments between heterotypic orthobunyaviruses of shared serological character (Beaty et al., 1981, Borucki et al., 1999, Beaty et al., 1985). In addition, orthobunyavirus segment reassortment has been associated with outbreaks of human disease (Briese et al., 2006, Gerrard et al., 2004).

Antigenicity

The Gn and Gc proteins are responsible for eliciting hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies (Kingsford et al., 1983). Complement-fixing antibodies are elicited by the nucleocapsid protein. Orthobunyaviruses can be placed into one of at least 18 serogroups, or remain ungrouped, by the use of hemagglutination-inhibition, neutralization and complement fixation assays (Calisher 1996).

Derivation of names

Orthobunyavirus is derived from Bunyamwera village (Uganda, Africa) where the type virus of the genus, Bunyamwera virus, was first isolated.

Species demarcation criteria

Species within the genus Orthobunyavirus can be defined by:

  • Less than 96% identity in the complete amino acid sequence of the L protein

The species Acara orthobunyavirus, Anopheles B orthobunyavirus, Bakau orthobunyavirus, Batama orthobunyavirus, Bertioga orthobunyavirus, Minatitlan orthobunyavirus, M’Poko orthobunyavirus, Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirus, Turlock orthobunyavirus were established according to previous demarcation criteria; it is unknown if they would qualify as species based on virus genome comparisons.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Abras orthobunyavirusAbras virus75V1183L: MH017275;
M: MH017281;
S: MH017269
All
Complete genomeABRV
Acara orthobunyavirusAcará virusNo entry in GenbankACAV
Acara orthobunyavirusMoriche virusNo entry in GenbankMORV
Aino orthobunyavirusAino virus38KL: HE795087;
M: HE795088;
S: HE795089
All
L: NC_018465;
M: NC_018459;
S: NC_018460
All
Complete genomeAINOV
Akabane orthobunyavirusAkabane virusOBE-1L: AB190458;
M: AB100604;
S: AB000851
All
L: NC_009894;
M: NC_009895;
S: NC_009896
All
Complete genomeAKAV
Akabane orthobunyavirusTinaroo virusCSIRO 153L: MH484339;
M: MH484340;
S: MH484341
All
Complete genomeTINV
Akabane orthobunyavirusYaba-7 virusYaba 7L: MH484348;
M: MH484349;
S: MH484350
All
Complete genomeY7V
Alajuela orthobunyavirusAlajuela virusMARU 11079L: KM272186;
M: KM272187;
S: KM272188
All
L: NC_038717;
M: NC_038715;
S: NC_038716
All
Complete genomeALJV
Alajuela orthobunyavirusSan Juan virusNo entry in GenbankSJV
Anadyr orthobunyavirusAnadyr viursLEIV-13395MgL: KU159766;
M: KU159765;
S: KU159764
All
Complete genomeANADV
Ananindeua orthobunyavirusAnanindeua virusBeAn20525L: MG821226;
M: MG821227;
S: MG821228
All
Complete genomeANUV
Anhembi orthobunyavirusAnhembi virusSPAr2984L: JN572062;
M: JN572063;
S: JN572064
All
L: NC_043564;
M: NC_043565;
S: NC_043566
All
Complete genomeAMBV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusLukuni virusTRVL 10076L: KP792672;
M: KP792671;
S: KP792670
All
L: NC_038720;
M: NC_038718;
S: NC_038719
All
Complete genomeLUKV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusAnopheles A virusoriginalL: KY793537;
M: KY793538;
S: KY793539
All
Complete genomeANAV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusArumateua virusNo entry in GenbankARTV; ARMTV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusCaraipé virusNo entry in GenbankCPEV; CRPV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusLas Maloyas virusNo entry in GenbankLMV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusTrombetas virusNo entry in GenbankTRMV; TUCRV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusTucuruí virusNo entry in GenbankTUCV
Anopheles B orthobunyavirusAnopheles B virusS: FJ660417S: NC_038721Partial genomeANBV
Anopheles B orthobunyavirusBoracéia virusNo entry in GenbankBORV
Apeu orthobunyavirusApeú virusBeAn848L: MG029269;
M: MG029270;
S: MG029271
All
Complete genomeAPEUV
Bakau orthobunyavirusBakau virusNo entry in GenbankBAKV
Bakau orthobunyavirusKetapang virusNo entry in GenbankKETV
Bakau orthobunyavirusNola virusArB2882S: AM711134Partial genomeNOLAV
Bakau orthobunyavirusTanjong Rabok virusNo entry in GenbankTRV
Bakau orthobunyavirusTelok Forest virusNo entry in GenbankTFV
Batai orthobunyavirusBatai virusMS50L: JX846606;
M: JX846605;
S: JX846604
All
L: NC_043580;
M: NC_043579;
S: NC_043581
All
Complete genomeBATV
Batama orthobunyavirusBatama virusAnB1292S: FJ660420S: NC_038722Partial genomeBMAV
Bellavista orthobunyavirusBellavista virusPRD0552L: KX161718;
M: KX161719;
S: KX161720
All
L: NC_043621;
M: NC_043623;
S: NC_043622
All
Complete genomeBELLV
Benevides orthobunyavirusBenevides virusNo entry in GenbankBVSV; BENV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusBertioga virusNo entry in GenbankBERV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusCananéia virusNo entry in GenbankCNAV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusGuaratuba virusNo entry in GenbankGTBV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusItimirim virusNo entry in GenbankITIV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusMirim virusBEAN7722L: KY013487;
M: KY013488;
S: KY013489
All
Complete genomeMIRV
Bimiti orthobunyavirusbimiti virusTRVL 8362L: KP792657;
M: KP792656;
S: KP792655
All
L: NC_038724;
M: NC_038723;
S: NC_038725
All
Complete genomeBIMV
Birao orthobunyavirusBirao virusDakArB 2198L: MH370821;
M: MH370822;
S: MH370823
All
L: NC_043651;
M: NC_043652;
S: NC_043650
All
Complete genomeBIRV
Botambi orthobunyavirusBotambi virusNo entry in GenbankBOTV
Bozo orthobunyavirusBozo virusDakArB 7343L: MH370824;
M: MH370825;
S: MH370826
All
L: NC_043655;
M: NC_043653;
S: NC_043654
All
Complete genomeBOZOV
Brazoran orthobunyavirusBrazoran virusoriginalL: KC854418;
M: KC854417;
S: KC854416
All
L: NC_022039;
M: NC_022038;
S: NC_022037
All
Complete genomeBRAZV
Bruconha orthobunyavirusBruconha virus77V74814L: KM280929;
M: KM280924;
S: KM280937
All
Complete genomeBRUV
Buffalo Creek orthobunyavirusBuffalo Creek virusDPP186L: KJ481929;
M: KJ481928;
S: KJ481927
All
Complete genomeBUCV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusBunyamwera virusL: X14383;
M: M11852;
S: D00353
All
L: NC_001925;
M: NC_001926;
S: NC_001927
All
Complete genomeBUNV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusGermiston virusM: M21951;
S: M19420
All
Partial genomeGERV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusLokern virusFMS 4332L: MG828823;
M: MG820264;
S: MG696865
All
Complete genomeLOKV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusMboké virusDakArY357/6eL: AY593726;
M: AY593731;
S: AY593727
All
Partial genomeMBOV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusNgari virusDakar D28542/4eL: KC608152;
M: KC608153;
S: KC608154
All
Complete genomeNRIV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusNorthway virus234L: MH484312;
M: MH102378;
S: MH015350
All
Complete genomeNORV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusSanta Rosa virusM2-1493L: MH484324;
M: MH484325;
S: MH484326
All
Complete genomeSARV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusShokwe virusSAAr 4042L: MH484330;
M: MH484331;
S: MH484332
All
Complete genomeSHOV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusStanfield virusNo entry in GenbankSTAV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusXingu virusNo entry in GenbankXINV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusBushbush virusNo entry in GenbankBSBV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusBenfica virusNo entry in GenbankBENV, BNFV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusJuan Díaz virusNo entry in GenbankJDV
Buttonwillow orthobunyavirusButtonwillow virusBFS 5002L: KF697160;
M: KF697161;
S: KF697162
All
L: NC_043597;
M: NC_043599;
S: NC_043598
All
Complete genomeBUTV
Bwamba orthobunyavirusBwamba virusM459L: KJ867184;
M: KJ867183;
S: KJ867182
All
L: NC_034479;
M: NC_034490;
S: NC_034480
All
Complete genomeBWAV
Bwamba orthobunyavirusPongola virusSA Ar1L: KJ867178;
M: KJ867177;
S: EU564828
All
Complete genomePGAV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusCache Valley virus6V633L: KX100135;
M: KX100134;
S: KX100133
All
L: NC_043618;
M: NC_043619;
S: NC_043620
All
Complete genomeCVV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusCholul virusMex07L: JN808311;
M: JN808310;
S: EU879062
All
Partial genomeCHLV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusTlacotalpan virus61D240L: KX100120;
M: KX100119;
S: KX100118
All
Complete genomeTALV
Cachoeira Porteira orthobunyavirusCachoeira Porteira virusBeAr328208L: JN968590;
M: JN968591;
S: JN968592
All
L: NC_043575;
M: NC_043573;
S: NC_043574
All
Complete genomeCPOV
California encephalitis orthobunyavirusCalifornia encephalitis virusBFS 283L: KX817312;
M: KX817313;
S: KX817314
All
Complete genomeCEV
California encephalitis orthobunyavirusMorro Bay virusDAV-457S: U31989Partial genomeMBV
Capim orthobunyavirusCapim virusBeAn8582L: KT160026;
M: KT160027;
S: KT160028
All
L: NC_034482;
M: NC_034493;
S: NC_034483
All
Complete genomeCAPV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusCaraparú virusBeAn3994L: KF254776;
M: KF254777;
S: KF254778
All
L: NC_034489;
M: NC_034477;
S: NC_034478
All
Complete genomeCARV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusEl Huayo virusIQT110L: KT334540Partial genomeEHUV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusItaya virusIQT9646L: KM092512;
M: KM092513;
S: KM092514
All
Complete genomeITYV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusOssa virusBT 1820S: DQ188954Partial genomeOSSAV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusVinces virus75V-807S: DQ188958Partial genomeVINV
Cat Que orthobunyavirusCát Quế virusVN04-2108L: JQ675598;
M: JQ675599;
S: JQ675600
All
L: NC_024076;
M: NC_024074;
S: NC_024075
All
Complete genomeCQV
Cat Que orthobunyavirusOya virusSC0806L: JX983194;
M: JX983193;
S: JX983192
All
Complete genomeOYAV
Catu orthobunyavirusCatú virusBeH 151L: KP792660;
M: KP792659;
S: KP792658
All
L: NC_038728;
M: NC_038727;
S: NC_038726
All
Complete genomeCATUV
Enseada orthobunyavirusEnseada virus76V-25880L: KU178983;
M: KU178984;
S: KU178985
All
L: NC_043614;
M: NC_043612;
S: NC_043613
All
Complete genomeENSV
Faceys paddock orthobunyavirusFacey's paddock virusAus Ch 16129L: KF697138;
M: KF697137;
S: KF697136
All
Complete genomeFPV
Fort Sherman orthobunyavirusFort Sherman virus86MSP18L: KX100132;
M: KX100131;
S: KX100130
All
L: NC_043617;
M: NC_043615;
S: NC_043616
All
Complete genomeFSV
Fort Sherman orthobunyavirusLaguna Larga virusCbaAr 426L: KX100111;
M: KX100110;
S: KX100109
All
Complete genomeLLV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusGamboa virusGML 435718L: KM272174;
M: KM272175;
S: KM272176
All
L: NC_038729;
M: NC_038730;
S: NC_038731
All
Complete genomeGAMV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusBrus Laguna virusNo entry in GenbankBLAV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusCalchaquí virusAG 83-1347L: KM272183;
M: KM272184;
S: KM272185
All
Complete genomeCQIV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusPueblo Viejo virus75V-2621L: KX900438;
M: KX900439;
S: KX900440
All
Complete genomePVV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusSoberanía virusNo entry in GenbankSOBV
Gan Gan orthobunyavirusGan Gan virusNB6057L: KR013232;
M: KR013233;
S: KR013234
All
Complete genomeGGV
Guajara orthobunyavirusGuajará virusBeAn 10615L: KP792663;
M: KP792662;
S: KP792661
All
L: NC_038734;
M: NC_038733;
S: NC_038732
All
Complete genomeGJAV
Guama orthobunyavirusGuamá virusBeAn 227L: KP792666;
M: KP792665;
S: KP792664
All
L: NC_038736;
M: NC_038735;
S: NC_038737
All
Complete genomeGMAV
Guaroa orthobunyavirusGuaroa virusBeH22063L: KM245524;
M: KM245523;
S: KM245522
All
L: NC_034487;
M: NC_034506;
S: NC_034486
All
Complete genomeGROV
Iaco orthobunyavirusIaco virusBeAn314206L: JN572065;
M: JN572066;
S: JN572067
All
L: NC_043568;
M: NC_043567;
S: NC_043569
All
Complete genomeIACOV
Ilesha orthobunyavirusIlesha virusR5964L: KF234075;
M: KF234074;
S: KF234073
All
L: NC_043587;
M: NC_043586;
S: NC_043585
All
Complete genomeILEV
Ingwavuma orthobunyavirusIngwavuma virusSA An 4165L: KF697139;
M: KF697140;
S: KF697141
All
L: NC_043588;
M: NC_043589;
S: NC_043590
All
Complete genomeINGV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusJamestown Canyon virus61V2235L: HM007352;
M: HM007351;
S: HM007350
All
L: NC_043559;
M: NC_043560;
S: NC_043558
All
Complete genomeJCV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusInkoo virusKN3641L: EU789573;
M: U88059;
S: U47137
All
Complete genomeINKV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusJerry Slough virusBFS 4474L: KX817318;
M: KX817319;
S: KX817320
All
Complete genomeJSV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusSouth River virusNJO-94FL: KX817336;
M: KX817337;
S: KX817338
All
Complete genomeSORV
Jatobal orthobunyavirusJatobal virusBeAn 423380L: JQ675603;
M: JQ675602;
S: JQ675601
All
L: NC_043578;
M: NC_043577;
S: NC_043576
All
Complete genomeJASTV
Kaeng Khoi orthobunyavirusKaeng Khoi virusPSC-19L: KJ867205;
M: KJ867204;
S: KJ867203
All
L: NC_034499;
M: NC_034500;
S: NC_034501
All
Complete genomeKKV
Kairi orthobunyavirusKairi virusBeAr8226L: KR260738;
M: KR260739;
S: KR260740
All
L: NC_038738;
M: NC_038739;
S: NC_038740
All
Complete genomeKRIV
Keystone orthobunyavirusKeystone virusB64-5508.05L: KX817321;
M: KX817322;
S: KX817323
All
L: NC_043629;
M: NC_043627;
S: NC_043628
All
Complete genomeKEYV
Koongol orthobunyaviruskoongol virusMRM 31L: KP792669;
M: KP792668;
S: KP792667
All
L: NC_038741;
M: NC_038742;
S: NC_038743
All
Complete genomeKOOV
Koongol orthobunyaviruswongal virusNo entry in GenbankWONV
La Crosse orthobunyavirusLa Crosse virushuman/1960L: EF485032;
M: EF485031;
S: EF485030
All
Complete genomeLACV
Leanyer orthobunyavirusLeanyer virusAusN16701L: HM627178;
M: HM627177;
S: HM627176
All
L: NC_043563;
M: NC_043562;
S: NC_043561
All
Complete genomeLEAV
Lumbo orthbunyavirusLumbo virusSAAr 1881L: KX817324;
M: KX817325;
S: KX817326
All
L: NC_043632;
M: NC_043630;
S: NC_043631
All
Complete genomeLUMV
Macaua orthobunyavirusMacauã virusBeAr306329L: JN572068;
M: JN572069;
S: JN572070
All
Complete genomeMCAV
Madrid orthobunyavirusMadrid virusBT4075L: KF254779;
M: KF254780;
S: KF254781
All
L: NC_034497;
M: NC_034505;
S: NC_034498
All
Complete genomeMADV
Maguari orthobunyavirusMaguari virus; Northway virusBeAr 7272L: KY910429;
M: KY910430;
S: KY910431
All
Complete genomeMAGV
Maguari orthobunyavirusPlayas virus75V3066L: KX100123;
M: KX100122;
S: KX100121
All
Complete genomePLAV
Mahogany Hammock orthobunyavirusMahogany Hammock virusFE4-2sL: KP835520;
M: KP835519;
S: KP835518
All
Complete genomeMHV
Main Drain orthobunyavirusMain Drain virus72V2567L: MH484306;
M: MH484307;
S: MH484308
All
Complete genomeMDV
Manzanilla orthobunyavirusManzanilla virusTRVL 3586L: KF697150;
M: KF697149;
S: KF697148
All
Complete genomeMANV
Manzanilla orthobunyavirusInini virusNo entry in GenbankINIV
Mapputta orthobunyavirusMapputta virusMRM186L: KJ481923;
M: KJ481922;
S: KJ481921
All
Complete genomeMAPV
Maprik orthobunyavirusMaprik virusMK7532L: KJ481926;
M: KJ481925;
S: KJ481924
All
L: NC_026281;
M: NC_026283;
S: NC_026282
All
Complete genomeMPKV
Marituba orthobunyavirusMarituba virusBeAn15L: KF254770;
M: KF254771;
S: KF254772
All
L: NC_034495;
M: NC_034504;
S: NC_034496
All
Complete genomeMTBV
Marituba orthobunyavirusGumbo Limbo virusFe371H2L: KM280930;
S: KM280938
All
Partial genomeGLV
Marituba orthobunyavirusMurutucú virusBeAn974L: MG029284;
M: MG029285;
S: MG029286
All
Complete genomeMURV
Marituba orthobunyavirusNepuyo virusBeAn10709L: MG029287;
M: MG029288;
S: MG029289
All
Complete genomeNEPV
Marituba orthobunyavirusRestan virusTRVL 51144L: KM280932;
S: KM280935
All
Partial genomeRESV
Marituba orthobunyavirusZungarococha virusNo entry in GenbankZUNV
Matruh orthobunyavirusMatruh virusAn 1047-61L: KP792693;
M: KP792692;
S: KP792691
All
Complete genomeMTRV
Melao orthobunyavirusMelao virusTRVL 9375L: KX817327;
M: KX817328;
S: KX817329
All
L: NC_043634;
M: NC_043633;
S: NC_043635
All
Complete genomeMELV
Mermet orthobunyavirusMermet virusACV 782L: KF697153;
M: KF697151;
S: KF697152
All
L: NC_043591;
M: NC_043592;
S: NC_043593
All
Complete genomeMERV
Minatitlan orthobunyavirusMinatitlán virusNo entry in GenbankMNTV
Minatitlan orthobunyavirusPalestina virusNo entry in GenbankPLSV
Moju orthobunyavirusMoju virusBeAR 12590L: KP792675;
M: KP792674;
S: KP792673
All
Complete genomeMOJUV
MPoko orthobunyavirusM’Poko virusArB365S: AM711133S: NC_043431Partial genomeMPOV
MPoko orthobunyavirusYaba-1 virusNo entry in GenbankY1V
Nyando orthobunyavirusNyando virusMP401L: KJ867190;
M: KJ867189;
S: KJ867188
All
L: NC_034492;
M: NC_034491;
S: NC_034481
All
Complete genomeNDV
Nyando orthobunyavirusEretmapodites virusNo entry in GenbankERETV
Nyando orthobunyavirusMojuí dos Campos virusBeAn276121L: KJ867202;
M: KJ867201;
S: KJ867200
All
Complete genomeMDCV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusOlifantsvlei virusNo entry in GenbankOLIV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusBobia virusNo entry in GenbankBIAV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusDabakala virusNo entry in GenbankDABV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusOubi virusNo entry in GenbankOUBIV
Oriboca orthobunyavirusOriboca virusBeAN17L: KF254773;
M: KF254774;
S: KF254775
All
L: NC_034475;
M: NC_034488;
S: NC_034476
All
Complete genomeORIV
Oriboca orthobunyavirusItaquí virusNo entry in GenbankITQV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusOropouche virusL: AF484424;
M: AF441119;
S: AY237111
All
L: NC_005776;
M: NC_005775;
S: NC_005777
All
Complete genomeOROV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusIquitos virusIQT9924L: KF697142;
M: KF697143;
S: KF697144
All
Complete genomeIQTV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusMadre de Dios virusFMD 1303L: KF697147;
M: KF697145;
S: KF697146
All
Complete genomeMDDV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusPerdões virusBeAn790177L: KP691627;
M: KP691628;
S: KP691629
All
Complete genomePDEV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusPintupo virusNo entry in GenbankPINTV
Oyo orthobunyavirusOyo virusIbAn 2898L: HM639780;
M: HM639779;
S: HM639778
All
Complete genomeOYOV
Patois orthobunyavirusPatois virus63A49L: MH017277;
M: MH017283;
S: MH017273
All
L: NC_043690;
M: NC_043691;
S: NC_043689
All
Complete genomePATV
Patois orthobunyavirusBabahoya virus75V2858L: MH017276;
M: MH017282;
S: MH017270
All
Complete genomeBABV
Patois orthobunyavirusPahayokee virusNo entry in GenbankPAHV
Peaton orthobunyavirusPeaton virusCSIRO 110L: HE795093;
M: HE795094;
S: HE795095
All
L: NC_043550;
M: NC_043551;
S: NC_043549
All
Complete genomePEAV
Potosi orthobunyavirusPotosi virusIL94-1899L: MF066368;
M: MF066369;
S: MF066370
All
L: NC_043646;
M: NC_043645;
S: NC_043647
All
Complete genomePOTV
Sabo orthobunyavirusSabo virusIB AN 9398L: HE795096;
M: HE795097;
S: HE795098
All
L: NC_043553;
M: NC_043552;
S: NC_043554
All
Complete genomeSABOV
San Angelo orthobunyavirusSan Angelo virus20230L: KX817330;
M: KX817331;
S: KX817332
All
L: NC_043637;
M: NC_043638;
S: NC_043636
All
Complete genomeSAV
Sango orthobunyavirusSango virusAn 5077L: HE795099;
M: HE795100;
S: HE795101
All
L: NC_043556;
M: NC_043555;
S: NC_043557
All
Complete genomeSANV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusSchmallenberg virusF6L: KC355457;
M: KC355458;
S: KC355459
All
L: NC_043583;
M: NC_043584;
S: NC_043582
All
Complete genomeSBV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusDouglas virus93-6L: HE795090;
M: HE795091;
S: HE795092
All
Complete genomeDOUV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusSathuperi virusL: HE795102;
M: HE795103;
S: HE795104
All
Complete genomeSATV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusShamonda virusIb An 5550L: HE795105;
M: HE795106;
S: HE795107
All
Complete genomeSHAV
Sedlec orthobunyavirusSedlec virusAv 172L: MH484327;
M: MH484328;
S: MH484329
All
Complete coding genomeSEDV
Serra do Navio orthobunyavirusSerra do Navio virusBeAr 103645L: KX817333;
M: KX817334;
S: KX817335
All
L: NC_043641;
M: NC_043639;
S: NC_043640
All
Complete genomeSDNV
Shark River orthobunyavirusShark River virus64U80L: MH017278;
M: MH017284;
S: MH017271
All
Complete coding genomeSRV
Shuni orthobunyavirusShuni virusSAE1809L: KF153118;
M: KF153117;
S: KC510272
All
L: NC_043699;
M: NC_043697;
S: NC_043698
All
Complete genomeSHUV
Shuni orthobunyavirusKaikalur virusVRC 713423-2L: MH484297;
M: MH484298;
S: MH484299
All
Complete genomeKAIV
Simbu orthobunyavirusSimbu virusSA Ar 53L: HE795108;
M: HE795109;
S: HE795110
All
L: NC_018476;
M: NC_018478;
S: NC_018477
All
Complete genomeSIMV
Simbu orthobunyavirusPara virusNo entry in GenbankPARAV
Snowshoe hare orthobunyavirussnowshoe hare virusL: EU203678;
M: EU262553;
S: EU294510
All
Complete genomeSSHV
Snowshoe hare orthobunyavirusKhatanga virus; Chatanga virusLEIV-18733L: HQ734817;
M: HQ734821;
S: HQ734824
All
Complete genomeKHATV
Sororoca orthobunyavirusSororoca virusBeAr32149L: JN572071;
M: JN572072;
S: JN572073
All
L: NC_043570;
M: NC_043571;
S: NC_043572
All
Complete genomeSORV
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusTacaiuma virusBeAn73L: MF497778;
M: MF497776;
S: MF497775
All
L: NC_043692;
M: NC_043694;
S: NC_043693
All
Complete genomeTCMV
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusCoAr 1071 virusNo entry in GenbankCA1071V
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusCoAr 3627 virusNo entry in GenbankCA3626V
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusVirgin River virusNo entry in GenbankVRV
Tahyna orthobunyavirusŤahyňa virusXJ0625L: EU665255;
M: EU622819;
S: EU622820
All
Complete genomeTAHV
Tataguine orthobunyavirusTataguine virusH9963L: KP792678;
M: KP792677;
S: KP792676
All
L: NC_043607;
M: NC_043608;
S: NC_043606
All
Complete genomeTATV
Tensaw orthobunyavirusTensaw virusTSV-FE3-66FBL: FJ943510;
M: FJ943508;
S: FJ943505
All
L: NC_043546;
M: NC_043548;
S: NC_043547
All
Complete genomeTENV
Tete orthobunyavirusTete virusSAAn 3518L: KP792681;
M: KP792680;
S: KP792679
All
L: NC_039184;
M: NC_039183;
S: NC_039185
All
Complete genomeTETEV
Tete orthobunyavirusBahig virusEgB 90L: KP792654;
M: KP792653;
S: KP792652
All
Complete genomeBAHV
Tete orthobunyavirusTsuruse virusNo entry in GenbankTSUV
Tete orthobunyavirusWeldona virus76V-21935M: EU409297Partial genomeWELV
Thimiri orthobunyavirusThimiri virusVRC 66414L: MH484336;
M: MH484337;
S: MH484338
All
Complete genomeTHIV
Timboteua orthobunyavirusTimboteua virusNo entry in GenbankTBTV
Triniti orthobunyavirusTriniti virusTVRL7994L: MG792213;
M: MG792214;
S: MG792215
All
Complete genomeTNTV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirustrivittatus virusEklundL: KR149249;
M: KR149248;
S: KR149247
All
Complete genomeTVTV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirusAchiote virusPanAR395145L: KY555808;
M: KY555809;
S: KY555810
All
Complete genomeACHOV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirusinfirmatus virusTampa 08L: KY569262;
M: KY569263;
S: KY569264
All
Complete genomeINFV
Turlock orthobunyavirusLednice virusNo entry in GenbankLEDV
Turlock orthobunyavirusTurlock virusNo entry in GenbankTURV
Turlock orthobunyavirusUmbre virusIG1424L: KP792687;
M: KP792686;
S: KP792685
All
L: NC_043037;
M: NC_043036;
S: NC_043035
All
Complete genomeUMBV
Utinga orthobunyavirusUtinga virusBe An 84785L: KF697154;
M: KF697155;
S: KF697156
All
L: NC_043594;
M: NC_043595;
S: NC_043596
All
Complete genomeUTIV
Utinga orthobunyavirusUtive virusPan An 48878L: KF697157;
M: KF697159;
S: KF697158
All
Complete genomeUTEV
Witwatersrand orthobunyavirusWitwatersrand virusSAAr 1062L: KP792690;
M: KP792689;
S: KP792688
All
L: NC_043674;
M: NC_043675;
S: NC_043673
All
Complete genomeWITV
Wolkberg orthobunyavirusWolkberg virus2562_SA3L: KX470551;
M: KX470552;
S: KX470553
All
L: NC_034633;
M: NC_034631;
S: NC_034632
All
Complete genomeWBV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusWyeomyia virusoriginalL: JN572080;
M: JN572081;
S: JN572082
All
L: NC_039186;
M: NC_039187;
S: NC_039188
All
Complete genomeWYOV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusTaiassui virusBeAr671L: JN572074;
M: JN572075;
S: JN572076
All
Complete genomeTAIAV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusTucunduba virusBeAR701402L: KX579499;
M: KX579500;
S: KX579501
All
Complete genomeTUCV
 

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus Abbreviation

Reference

Antequera virus

L: MK896641;
M: MK896640;
S: MK896639

ANTV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Baakal virus

L: MN092353;
M: MN092353;
S: MN092354

BKAV

(Kopp et al., 2019)

Barranqueras virus

L: MK896629;
M: MK896628;
S: MK896627

BQSV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Barrita virus

BITV

(Fernández et al., 2020)

Balagodu virus

L: MH507151;
M: MH507152;
S: MH507153

BLGV

(Whitmer et al., 2018)

Belem virus

L: MK896623;
M: MK896622;
S: MK896621

BLMV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Belmont virus

L: KT720482*;
M: KT720481*

BELV

(Huang 2016)

Bobaya virus

L: MW415981;
M: MW415982;
S: MW415980

BOBV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Ebinur lake virus

L: KJ710425;
M: KJ710423;
S: KJ710424

EBIV

(Xia et al., 2019)

Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus

L: MK047412*;
M: MK047406*;
S: MK047401*

KFKSV

(Palya et al., 2019)

Kowanyama virus

L: KT820202;
M: KT820203;
S: KT820204

KOWV

(Huang et al., 2016)

Little Sussex virus

L: KT720483

LTLSV

(Huang 2016)

Ness Ziona virus

L: MH018032;
M: MH018033;
S: MH018034

NZV

(Shifman et al., 2019)

Ntwetwe virus

L: MH324826*;
M: MH324827*;
S: MH324828*

NTWV

(Edridge et al., 2019)

Nyangole virus

L: MH685711*;
M: MH685710*;
S: MH685709*

NYGV

(Ramesh et al., 2019)

Okola virus

L: MK896509;
M: MK896508;
S: MK896507

OKOV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Pacora virus

L: MK896500;
M: MK896499;
S: MK896498

PCAV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Parker's Farm virus

L: KT720484

PFV

(Huang 2016)

Resistencia virus

L: MK896480;
M: MK896479;
S: MK896478

RTAV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Tanga virus

L: MK896459;
M: MK896458;
S: MK896457

TANV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Termeil virus

L: MK896450;
M: MK896499;
S: MK896448

TERV

(Kapuscinski et al., 2021)

Wǔhàn louse fly virus 1

L: KM817663*;
M: KM817725*;
S: KM817755*

WLFV

(Li et al., 2015)

Yacaaba virus

L: KT820208*;
M: KT820209*;
S: KT820210*

YACV

(Huang et al., 2016)

Virus names and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Sequences comprise the complete virus genome except where noted; * partial genome