Genus: Orthoavulavirus

Genus: Orthoavulavirus

Distinguishing features

Members of all species of the genus Orthoavulavirus share greater sequence relatedness within the genus than with members of other genera.  


See discussion under family description. 

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


The orthoavulaviruses include significant avian pathogens, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a regulatory-defined strain of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1, species Avian orthoavulavirus 1), is the most important. Many strains of NDV, both virulent and avirulent for chickens and pigeons, have been extensively analyzed. The many other antigenically related avian paramyxoviruses are not well studied. Previously species were defined by the serotypes deduced from hemagglutination-inhibition tests, with weak interactions occurring between different types. 

Species demarcation criteria

Species demarcation is now entirely based on the distance in the phylogenic tree based on the comparison of complete large (L) protein amino acid sequences. Since the primary criterion is the tree topology, whether or not a virus belongs to the same species becomes a matter of branch length between the nearest node and the tip of the branch. This length is defined as 0.03 in the trees generated as described in the legend to Figure 3.Paramyxoviridae.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Avian orthoavulavirus 1avian paramyxovirus 1Newcastle disease virus Ulster/67AY562991Complete genomeAPMV-1
Avian orthoavulavirus 9avian paramyxovirus 9duck/New York/22/1978EU910942NC_025390Complete genomeAPMV-9
Avian orthoavulavirus 12avian paramyxovirus 12Wigeon/Italy/3920_1/2005KC333050NC_025363Complete genomeAPMV-12
Avian orthoavulavirus 13avian paramyxovirus 13goose/Shimane/67/2000LC041132NC_030231Complete genomeAPMV-13
Avian orthoavulavirus 16avian paramyxovirus 16WB/Kr/UPO216/2014KY511044NC_039016Complete genomeAPMV-16
Avian orthoavulavirus 17Antarctic penguin virus A1KY452442NC_039017Complete coding genomeAPV-A
Avian orthoavulavirus 18Antarctic penguin virus B2KY452443NC_039018Complete coding genomeAPV-B
Avian orthoavulavirus 19Antarctic penguin virus C3KY452444NC_039019Complete coding genomeAPV-C
Avian orthoavulavirus 21avian paramyxovirus 21APMV/wild birds/Cheonsu1510/2015MF594598Complete genomeAPMV-21

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.