Genus: Pacuvirus

Genus: Pacuvirus

Distinguishing features

Pacuvirus genomes encode four structural proteins: the RNA-directed RNA polymerase/endonuclease L, the glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and the nucleoprotein N (Table 2.Peribunyaviridae; Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae). Viruses in the genus encode putative non-structural (NS) NSm proteins, but not NSs protein (Rodrigues et al., 2014).



Not described. 


Not described.

Genome organization and replication

The pacuvirus genome is similar to the genomes of all other viruses in the family. The L segment encodes the L protein, the M segment encodes the glycoproteins Gn and Gc and the non-structural protein NSm, and the S segment encodes N; the genome does not encode an NSs protein (Table 2.Peribunyaviridae; Figure 1.Pacuvirus) (Rodrigues et al., 2014).

Figure 1.Pacuvirus. Pacuvirus coding strategy. vcRNAs are depicted in 3'→5' direction and mRNAs are depicted in a 5'→3' direction. The mRNAs depict ORFs that encode the N, nucleocapsid protein; Gn and Gc, external glycoproteins; L, large protein, as well as the non-structural protein NSm.

Replication and morphogenesis in the Golgi are likely to be similar to that of other members of the family; however, this has not been thoroughly examined (see ‘Genome organisation and replication’ on the family page).


Pacuviruses have been isolated from psychodid sandflies and from rodents in Brazil (Rodrigues et al., 2014, Aitken et al., 1975). Serological surveys have found antibodies to Pacui virus in rodents and marsupials, but not in humans (Aitken et al., 1975). Pacui virus was originally assigned to the genus Phlebovirus due to the association with sandflies; however, recent sequence analyses have determined that pacuviruses have genomes organized similar to that of the orthobunyaviruses (Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae; (Rodrigues et al., 2014).


The glycoproteins and nucleocapsid protein can elicit an antibody response (Aitken et al., 1975). Where studied, pacuviruses do not react by complement fixation with many orthobunyaviruses (Tesh et al., 1975, Travassos da Rosa et al., 1983). 

Derivation of names

Pacuvirus is derived from Pacui virus.

Species demarcation criteria

Members of different species have a pairwise evolutionary distance value of greater than 0.1 when using the WAG substitution model on concatenated amino acid sequences of all three segments (Piet and Kuhn 2018).

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Caimito pacuvirusCaimito virusVP-488AL: MK330759; M: MK330760; S: MK330761Complete genomeCAIV
Chilibre pacuvirusChilibre virusVP-118DL: MK330762; M: MK330763; S: MK330764Complete genomeCHIV
Pacui pacuvirusPacui virusBEAN27326L: KM225254; M: KM225255; S: KM225256L: NC_043600; M: NC_043602; S: NC_043601Complete genomePACV
Rio Preto da Eva pacuvirusRio Preto da Eva virusBEAR540870L: KM225257; M: KM225258; S: KM225259L: NC_043605; M: NC_043603; S: NC_043604Complete genomeRPEV
Tapirape pacuvirusTapirapé virusBEAN767592L: KM225260; M: KM225261; S: KM225262Complete genomeTAPV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

Santarem virus


Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.