Genus: Orthobunyavirus


Genus: Orthobunyavirus

Distinguishing features

Orthobunyaviruses have a wide geographic and host range, although individual viruses may be restricted to a small number of host species. Viruses in the genus form a monophyletic clade upon comparison of L protein amino acid sequences, and encode an NSm, and often an NSs protein. Segment reassortment is well-described among related strains and has been associated with disease emergence.

Virion 

Morphology

Orthobunyavirions are spherical or pleomorphic in shape and 80−120 nm in diameter (Martin et al., 1985). The enveloped surface (about 5 nm thick) has projections of glycoprotein heterodimers (Gn and Gc) about 18 nm long with an estimated 650 copies per virion (Talmon et al., 1987). The surface is a closely packed lattice of glycoprotein Gn-Gc spikes organized in a tripod-like order (Bowden et al., 2013). Structural analysis has revealed that the N-terminal variable half of the Gc glycoprotein is composed of two domains: a 27 kDa α-helical head domain and a stalk that is divided into two identically folded 19 kDa tandem β-sandwiches (Hellert et al., 2019). The projecting spike is also the major target of the neutralizing antibody response (Hellert et al., 2019).

Nucleic acid

Orthobunyaviruses have the peribunyavirus-typical tripartite, negative-sense genome organization. The terminal nucleotides of each segment (S, M, and L) occur in a canonical, conserved sequence (in coding sense) 5′-AGTAGTGT…ACACTACT-3′. As with other peribunyaviruses, genomic vRNAs are not polyadenylated nor are they modified at the 5′-end. Viral mRNAs are not polyadenylated, are truncated relative to the vRNA (Abraham and Pattnaik 1983, Eshita et al., 1985). mRNAs possess a 5′-methylated cap derived from host mRNA via “cap snatching”, which is mediated by the endonuclease function of the L protein (Reguera et al., 2010).

Proteins

Like other peribunyaviruses, all orthobunyavirions contain of four structural proteins: Gn, Gc, nucleocapsid (N), and RNA-directed RNA polymerase/endonuclease protein (L) (Figure 1.Peribunyaviridae, Figure 2.Peribunyaviridae; Table 2.Peribunyaviridae). Non-structural proteins (NSs and NSm) are encoded in the S and the M segments of some orthobunyaviruses (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus; Table 2.Peribunyaviridae).

Lipids

Orthobunyavirion lipids are derived from the host membranes where viruses mature, and include phospholipids, sterols, fatty acids, and glycolipids. Virions contain 20–30% lipids by weight (Bishop et al., 1980).

Carbohydrates

Orthobunyavirions may contain asparagine-linked mannose sugars on the Gn and Gc proteins when grown in vertebrate cells. Carbohydrates make up 7% of the virion weight (Bishop et al., 1980).

Genome organization and replication

The S segment encodes N, and may encode the non-structural protein NSs in an overlapping ORF downstream (Fuller et al., 1983) or upstream of the  N protein initiation codon (Aguilar et al., 2018) (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus). However, not all orthobunyaviruses encode NSs (de Melo et al., 2018, Mohamed et al., 2009). The M segment encodes Gn and Gc proteins (Fazakerley et al., 1988) (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus), that are co-translationally cleaved by host signalase (Fazakerley and Ross 1989) and signal peptide peptidase (Shi et al., 2016). Orthobunyaviruses also encode an NSm protein between the Gn and Gc coding regions (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus). The L segment encodes for the L protein (Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus).

Figure 1.Orthobunyavirus. Orthobunyavirus coding strategy. vcRNAs are depicted in 3'→5' direction and mRNAs are depicted in a 5'→3' direction. The mRNAs depict ORFs that encode the N, nucleocapsid protein; Gn and Gc, external glycoproteins; L, large protein, as well as the non-structural proteins NSs and NSm.

Replication, morphogenesis, assembly, and budding are similar to that of all described peribunyaviruses (see ‘Genome organisation and replication’ on the family page).

Antigenicity

The Gn and Gc proteins are responsible for eliciting hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies (Kingsford et al., 1983). Complement-fixing antibodies are elicited by the nucleocapsid protein. Orthobunyaviruses can be placed into one of at least 18 serogroups, or remain ungrouped, by the use of hemagglutination-inhibition, neutralization and complement fixation assays (Calisher 1996).

Biology

The genus Orthobunyavirus is the largest and most diverse in the family including 88 species, members of which occur globally in tropical, temperate and arctic ecological niches. Although a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts are described for viruses of the genus, each virus posseses a restricted arthropod and host range (Beaty and Calisher 1991), which in turn limits its geographic distribution (Calisher 1996). However, some viruses share common hosts and overlapping geographies. Orthobunyaviruses have been isolated from many different vertebrate hosts including squirrels (La Crosse virus), bats (Mojuí dos Campos virus), rabbits (snowshoe hare virus), ungulates (Akabane virus), sloths (Oropouche virus), and birds (Mermet virus). Most orthobunyaviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. However, biting midges, bed bugs, and wingless bat flies are also known vectors. Some strains are known to be maintained in the arthropod host through transovarial transmission (Watts et al., 1974). Orthobunyaviruses are associated with a broad spectrum of human disease, including encephalitides (e.g., La Crosse virus), febrile illnesses (e.g., Bunyamwera virus), and viral haemorrhagic fever (e.g., Ngari virus Garissa variant). Adverse veterinary outcomes include fetal abnormalities and abortion storms among livestock (e.g., Cache Valley and Schmallenberg viruses). Coinfection with more than one orthobunyavirus resulting in the reassortment of genomic segments has been reported in both laboratory and natural settings (Cheng et al., 1999, Nunes et al., 2005, Yanase et al., 2012, Beaty et al., 1981, Bishop and Beaty 1988, Borucki et al., 1999, Briese et al., 2007, Beaty et al., 1985). Mosquitoes are reservoirs for the reassortment of genomic segments between heterotypic orthobunyaviruses of shared serological character (Beaty et al., 1981, Borucki et al., 1999, Beaty et al., 1985). In addition, orthobunyavirus segment reassortment has been associated with outbreaks of human disease (Briese et al., 2006, Gerrard et al., 2004).

Species demarcation criteria

Species within the genus Orthobunyavirus can be defined by:

  • Less than 96% identity in the complete amino acid sequence of the L protein

The species Acara orthobunyavirus, Anopheles B orthobunyavirus, Bakau orthobunyavirus, Batama orthobunyavirus, Bertioga orthobunyavirus, Minatitlan orthobunyavirus, M’Poko orthobunyavirus, Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirus, Tete orthobunyavirus, Turlock orthobunyavirus were established according to previous demarcation criteria; it is unknown if they would qualify as species based on virus genome comparisons.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Acara orthobunyavirusAcará virusNo entry in GenbankACAV
Acara orthobunyavirusMoriche virusNo entry in GenbankMORV
Aino orthobunyavirusAino virus38KL: HE795087; M: HE795088 ; S: HE795089L: NC_018465; M: NC_018459; S: NC_018460Complete genomeAINOV
Akabane orthobunyavirusAkabane virusOBE-1L: AB190458; M: AB100604; S: AB000851L: NC_009894; M: NC_009895; S: NC_009896Complete genomeAKAV
Akabane orthobunyavirusTinaroo virusCSIRO 153L:MH484339; M: MH484340; S: MH484341Complete genomeTINV
Akabane orthobunyavirusYaba-7 virusYaba 7L: MH484348; M: MH484349; S: MH484350Complete genomeY7V
Alajuela orthobunyavirusAlajuela virusMARU 11079L: KM272186; M: KM272187; S: KM272188L: NC_038717; M: NC_038715; S: NC_038716Complete genomeALJV
Alajuela orthobunyavirusSan Juan virusNo entry in GenbankSJV
Anadyr orthobunyavirusAnadyr viursLEIV-13395MgL: KU159766; M: KU159765; S: KU159764Complete genomeANADV
Anhembi orthobunyavirusAnhembi virusSPAr2984L: JN572062; M: JN572063; S: JN572064L: NC_043564; M: NC_043565; S: NC_043566Complete genomeAMBV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusLukuni virusTRVL 10076L: KP792672; M: KP792671; S: KP792670L: NC_038720; M: NC_038718; S: NC_038719Complete genomeLUKV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusAnopheles A virusoriginalL: KY793537; M: KY793538; S: KY793539Complete genomeANAV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusArumateua virusNo entry in GenbankARTV, ARMTV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusCaraipé virusNo entry in GenbankCPEV, CRPV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusLas Maloyas virusNo entry in GenbankLMV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusTrombetas virusNo entry in GenbankTRMV, TUCRV
Anopheles A orthobunyavirusTucuruí virusNo entry in GenbankTUCV
Anopheles B orthobunyavirusAnopheles B virusS: FJ660417S: NC_038721Partial genomeANBV
Anopheles B orthobunyavirusBoracéia virusNo entry in GenbankBORV
Bakau orthobunyavirusBakau virusNo entry in GenbankBAKV
Bakau orthobunyavirusKetapang virusNo entry in GenbankKETV
Bakau orthobunyavirusNola virusArB2882S: AM711134Partial genomeNOLAV
Bakau orthobunyavirusTanjong Rabok virusNo entry in GenbankTRV
Bakau orthobunyavirusTelok Forest virusNo entry in GenbankTFV
Batai orthobunyavirusBatai virusMS50L: JX846606; M: JX846605; S: JX846604Complete genomeBATV
Batama orthobunyavirusBatama virusAnB1292S: FJ660420S: NC_038722Partial genomeBMAV
Bellavista orthobunyavirusBellavista virusPRD0552L: KX161718; M: KX161719; S: KX161720L: NC_043621; M: NC_043623; S:NC_043622Complete genomeBELLV
Benevides orthobunyavirusBenevides virusNo entry in GenbankBVSV, BENV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusBertioga virusNo entry in GenbankBERV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusCananéia virusNo entry in GenbankCNAV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusGuaratuba virusNo entry in GenbankGTBV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusItimirim virusNo entry in GenbankITIV
Bertioga orthobunyavirusMirim virusBEAN7722L: KY013487; M: KY013488; S: KY013489Complete genomeMIRV
Bimiti orthobunyavirusbimiti virusTRVL 8362L: KP792657; M: KP792656; S: KP792655L: NC_038724; M: NC_038723; S: NC_038725Complete genomeBIMV
Birao orthobunyavirusBirao virusDakArB 2198L: MH370821; M: MH370822; S: MH370823L: NC_043651; M: NC_043652; S: NC_043650Complete genomeBIRV
Botambi orthobunyavirusBotambi virusNo entry in GenbankBOTV
Bozo orthobunyavirusBozo virusDakArB 7343L: MH370824; M: MH370825; S: MH370826L: NC_043655; M: NC_043653; S: NC_043654Complete genomeBOZOV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusBunyamwera virusL: X14383; M: M11852; S: D00353L: NC_001925; M: NC_001926; S: NC_001927Complete genomeBUNV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusGermiston virusM:M21951; S: M19420Partial genomeGERV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusLokern virusFMS 4332L: MG828823; M:MG820264; S: MG696865Complete genomeLOKV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusMboké virusDakArY357/6eS: AY593727Partial genomeMBOV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusNgari virusDakar D28542/4eL: KC608152; M: KC608153; S: KC608154Complete genomeNRIV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusNorthway virus234L: MH484312; M: MH102378; S: MH015350Complete genomeNORV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusSanta Rosa virusM2-1493L: MH484324; M:MH484325; S:MH484326Complete genomeSARV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusShokwe virusSAAr 4042L: MH484330; M: MH484331; S: MH484332Complete genomeSHOV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusStanfield virusNo entry in GenbankSTAV
Bunyamwera orthobunyavirusXingu virusNo entry in GenbankXINV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusBushbush virusNo entry in GenbankBSBV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusBenfica virusNo entry in GenbankBENV, BNFV
Bushbush orthobunyavirusJuan Díaz virusNo entry in GenbankJDV
Buttonwillow orthobunyavirusButtonwillow virusBFS 5002L: KF697160; M: KF697161; S: KF697162L: NC_043597; M: NC_043599; S: NC_043598Complete genomeBUTV
Bwamba orthobunyavirusBwamba virusM459L: KJ867184; M: KJ867183; S: KJ867182L: NC_034479; M: NC_034490; S: NC_034480Complete genomeBWAV
Bwamba orthobunyavirusPongola virusSA Ar1L: KJ867178; M: KJ867177; S: EU564828Complete genomePGAV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusCache Valley virus6V633L: KX100135; M: KX100134; S: KX100133L: NC_043618; M: NC_043619; S: NC_043620Complete genomeCVV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusCholul virusMex07M: JN808310; S:EU879062Partial genomeCHLV
Cache Valley orthobunyavirusTlacotalpan virus61D240L: KX100120; M: KX100119; S: KX100118Complete genomeTALV
Cachoeira Porteira orthobunyavirusCachoeira Porteira virusBeAr328208L: JN968590; M: JN968591; S: JN968592L: NC_043575; M: NC_043573; S: NC_043574Complete genomeCPOV
California encephalitis orthobunyavirusCalifornia encephalitis virusBFS 283L: KX817312; M: KX817313; S: KX817314Complete genomeCEV
California encephalitis orthobunyavirusMorro Bay virusDAV-457S: U31989Partial genomeMBV
Capim orthobunyavirusCapim virusBeAn8582L: KT160026; M: KT160027; S: KT160028L: NC_034482; M: NC_034493; S: NC_034483Complete genomeCAPV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusCaraparú virusBeAn3994L: KF254776; M: KF254777; S: KF254778L: NC_034489; M: NC_034477; S: NC_034478Complete genomeCARV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusApeú virusBeAn848L:MG029269; M:MG029270; S:MG029271Complete genomeAPEUV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusBruconha virus77V74814L:KM280929; M:KM280924; S:KM280937Complete genomeBRUV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusEl Huayo virusIQT110L: KT334540Partial genomeEHUV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusItaya virusIQT9646L:KM092512; M:KM092513; S: KM092514Complete genomeITYV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusOssa virusBT 1820S: DQ188954Partial genomeOSSAV
Caraparu orthobunyavirusVinces virus75V-807S: DQ188958Partial genomeVINV
Cat Que orthobunyavirusCát Quế virusVN04-2108L: JQ675598; M: JQ675599; S: JQ675600L: NC_024076; M: NC_024074; S: NC_024075Complete genomeCQV
Cat Que orthobunyavirusOya virusSC0806L: JX983194; M: JX983193; S: JX983192Complete genomeOYAV
Catu orthobunyavirusCatú virusBeH 151L: KP792660; M: KP792659; S: KP792658L: NC_038728; M: NC_038727; S: NC_038726Complete genomeCATUV
Enseada orthobunyavirusEnseada virus76V-25880L: KU178983; M: KU178984; S: KU178985L: NC_043614; M: NC_043612; S: NC_043613Complete genomeENSV
Faceys paddock orthobunyavirusFacey's paddock virusAus Ch 16129L: KF697138; M: KF697137; S: KF697136Complete genomeFPV
Fort Sherman orthobunyavirusFort Sherman virus86MSP18L: KX100132; M: KX100131; S: KX100130L: NC_043617; M: NC_043615; S: NC_043616Complete genomeFSV
Fort Sherman orthobunyavirusLaguna Larga virusCbaAr 426L: KX100111; M: KX100110; S: KX100109Complete genomeLLV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusGamboa virusGML 435718L: KM272174; M: KM272175; S: KM272176L: NC_038729; M: NC_038730; S: NC_038731Complete genomeGAMV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusBrus Laguna virusNo entry in GenbankBLAV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusCalchaquí virusAG 83-1347L: KM272183; M: KM272184; S: KM272184Complete genomeCQIV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusPueblo Viejo virus75V-2621L: KX900438; M: KX900439; S: KX900440Complete genomePVV
Gamboa orthobunyavirusSoberanía virusNo entry in GenbankSOBV
Guajara orthobunyavirusGuajará virusBeAn 10615L: KP792663; M: KP792662; S: KP792661L: NC_038734; M: NC_038733; S: NC_038732Complete genomeGJAV
Guama orthobunyavirusGuamá virusBeAn 227L: KP792666; M: KP792665; S: KP792664L: NC_038736; M: NC_038735; S: NC_038737Complete genomeGMAV
Guama orthobunyavirusAnanindeua virusBeAn20525L: MG821226; M: MG821227; S: MG821228Complete genomeANUV
Guama orthobunyavirusMahogany Hammock virusFE4-2sL: KP835520; M: KP835519; S: KP835518Complete genomeMHV
Guama orthobunyavirusMoju virusBeAR 12590L: KP792675; M: KP792674; S: KP792673Complete genomeMOJUV
Guaroa orthobunyavirusGuaroa virusBeH22063L: KM245524; M: KM245523; S: KM245522L: NC_034487; M: NC_034506; S: NC_034486Complete genomeGROV
Iaco orthobunyavirusIaco virusBeAn314206L: JN572065; M: JN572066; S: JN572067L: NC_043568; M: NC_043567; S: NC_043569Complete genomeIACOV
Ilesha orthobunyavirusIlesha virusR5964L: KF234075; M: KF234074; S: KF234073L: NC_043587; M: NC_043586; S: NC_043585Complete genomeILEV
Ingwavuma orthobunyavirusIngwavuma virusSA An 4165L: KF697139; M: KF697140; S: KF697141L: NC_043588; M: NC_043589; S: NC_043590Complete genomeINGV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusJamestown Canyon virus61V2235L: HM007352; M: HM007351; S: HM007350L: NC_043559; M: NC_043560; S: NC_043558Complete genomeJCV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusInkoo virusKN3641L: EU789573; M: U88059; S: U47137Complete genomeINKV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusJerry Slough virusBFS 4474L: KX817318; M: KX817319; S: KX817320Complete genomeJSV
Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirusSouth River virusNJO-94FL: KX817336; M: KX817337; S: KX917338Complete genomeSORV
Jatobal orthobunyavirusJatobal virusBeAn 423380L: JQ675603; M: JQ675602; S: JQ675601L: NC_043578; M: NC_043577; S: NC_043576Complete genomeJASTV
Kaeng Khoi orthobunyavirusKaeng Khoi virusPSC-19L: KJ867205; M: KJ867204; S: KJ867203L: NC_034499; M: NC_034500; S: NC_034501Complete genomeKKV
Kairi orthobunyavirusKairi virusBeAr8226L: KR260738; M: KR260739; S: KR260740L: NC_038738; M: NC_038739; S: NC_038740Complete genomeKRIV
Keystone orthobunyavirusKeystone virusB64-5508.05L: KX817321; M: KX817322; S: KX817323L: NC_043629; M: NC_043627; S: NC_043628Complete genomeKEYV
Koongol orthobunyaviruskoongol virusMRM 31L: KP792669; M: KP792668; S: KP792667L: NC_038741; M: NC_038742; S: NC_038743Complete genomeKOOV
Koongol orthobunyaviruswongal virusNo entry in GenbankWONV
La Crosse orthobunyavirusLa Crosse virushuman/1960L: EF485032; M: EF485031; S: EF485030Complete genomeLACV
Leanyer orthobunyavirusLeanyer virusAusN16701L: HM627178; M: HM627177; S: HM627176L: NC_043563; M: NC_043562; S: NC_043561Complete genomeLEAV
Lumbo orthbunyavirusLumbo virusSAAr 1881L: KX817324; M: KX817325; S: KX817326L: NC_043632; M: NC_043630; S: NC_043631Complete genomeLUMV
Macaua orthobunyavirusMacauã virusBeAr306329L: JN572068; M: JN572069; S: JN572070Complete genomeMCAV
Madrid orthobunyavirusMadrid virusBT4075L: KF254779; M: KF254780; S: KF254781L: NC_034497; M: NC_034505; S: NC_034498Complete genomeMADV
Maguari orthobunyavirusMaguari virus; Northway virusBeAr 7272L: KY910429; M: KY910430; S: KY910431Complete genomeMAGV
Maguari orthobunyavirusPlayas virus75V3066L: KX100123; M: KX100122; S: KX100121Complete genomePLAV
Main Drain orthobunyavirusMain Drain virus72V2567L: MH484306; M: MH484307; S: MH484308Complete genomeMDV
Manzanilla orthobunyavirusManzanilla virusTRVL 3586L: KF697150; M: KF697149 ; S: KF697148Complete genomeMANV
Manzanilla orthobunyavirusInini virusNo entry in GenbankINIV
Marituba orthobunyavirusMarituba virusBeAn15L: KF254770; M: KF254771; S: KF254772L: NC_034495; M: NC_034504; S: NC_034496Complete genomeMTBV
Marituba orthobunyavirusGumbo Limbo virusFe371H2L: KM280930; S: KM280938Partial genomeGLV
Marituba orthobunyavirusMurutucú virusBeAn974L: MG029284; M: MG029285; S: MG029286Complete genomeMURV
Marituba orthobunyavirusNepuyo virusBeAn10709L: MG029287; M: MG029288; S: MG029289Complete genomeNEPV
Marituba orthobunyavirusRestan virusTRVL 51144L: KM280932; S: KM280935Partial genomeRESV
Marituba orthobunyavirusZungarococha virusNo entry in GenbankZUNV
Melao orthobunyavirusMelao virusTRVL 9375L: KX817327; M: KX817328; S: KX817329L: NC_043634; M: NC_043633; S: NC_043635Complete genomeMELV
Mermet orthobunyavirusMermet virusACV 782L: KF697153; M: KF697151; S: KF697152L: NC_043591; M: NC_043592; S: NC_043593Complete genomeMERV
Minatitlan orthobunyavirusMinatitlán virusNo entry in GenbankMNTV
Minatitlan orthobunyavirusPalestina virusNo entry in GenbankPLSV
MPoko orthobunyavirusM’Poko virusArB365S: AM711133S: NC_043431Partial genomeMPOV
MPoko orthobunyavirusYaba-1 virusNo entry in GenbankY1V
Nyando orthobunyavirusNyando virusMP401L: KJ867190; M: KJ867189; S: KJ867188L: NC_034492; M: NC_034491; S: NC_034481Complete genomeNDV
Nyando orthobunyavirusEretmapodites virusNo entry in GenbankERETV
Nyando orthobunyavirusMojuí dos Campos virusBeAn276121L: KJ867202; M: KJ867201; S: KJ867200Complete genomeMDCV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusOlifantsvlei virusNo entry in GenbankOLIV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusBobia virusNo entry in GenbankBIAV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusDabakala virusNo entry in GenbankDABV
Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirusOubi virusNo entry in GenbankOUBIV
Oriboca orthobunyavirusOriboca virusBeAN17L: KF254773; M: KF254774; S: KF254775L: NC_034475; M: NC_034488; S: NC_034476Complete genomeORIV
Oriboca orthobunyavirusItaquí virusNo entry in GenbankITQV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusOropouche virusL: AF484424; M: AF441119; S: AY237111L: NC_005776; M: NC_005775; S: NC_005777Complete genomeOROV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusIquitos virusIQT9924L: KF697142; M: KF697143; S: KF697144Complete genomeIQTV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusMadre de Dios virusFMD 1303L: KF697147; M: KF697145; S: KF697146Complete genomeMDDV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusPerdões virusBeAn790177L: KP691627; M: KP691628; S:KP691629Complete genomePDEV
Oropouche orthobunyavirusPintupo virusNo entry in GenbankPINTV
Patois orthobunyavirusPatois virus63A49L: MH017277; M: MH017283; S: MH017273Complete genomePATV
Patois orthobunyavirusAbras virus75V1183L: MH017275; M: MH017281; S: MH017269Complete genomeABRV
Patois orthobunyavirusBabahoya virus75V2858L: MH017276; M: MH017282; S: MH017270Complete genomeBABV
Patois orthobunyavirusPahayokee virusNo entry in GenbankPAHV
Patois orthobunyavirusShark River virus64U80L: MH017278; M: MH017284; S: MH017271Complete genomeSRV
Peaton orthobunyavirusPeaton virusCSIRO 110L: HE795093; M: HE795094; S: HE795095L: NC_043550; M: NC_043551; S: NC_043549Complete genomePEAV
Potosi orthobunyavirusPotosi virusIL94-1899L: MF066368; M: MF066369; S: MF066370L: NC_043646; M: NC_043645; S: NC_043647Complete genomePOTV
Sabo orthobunyavirusSabo virusIB AN 9398L: HE795096; M: HE795097; S: HE795098L: NC_043553; M: NC_043552; S: NC_043554Complete genomeSABOV
San Angelo orthobunyavirusSan Angelo virus20230L: KX817330; M: KX817331; S: KX817332L: NC_043637; M: NC_043638; S: NC_043636Complete genomeSAV
Sango orthobunyavirusSango virusAn 5077L: HE795099; M: HE795100; S: HE795101L: NC_043556; M: NC_043555; S: NC_043557Complete genomeSANV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusSchmallenberg virusF6L: KC355457; M: KC355458; S: KC355459L: NC_043583; M: NC_043584; S: NC_043582Complete genomeSBV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusDouglas virus93-6L: HE795090; M: HE795091; S: HE795092Complete genomeDOUV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusSathuperi virusL: HE795102; M: HE795103; S: HE795104Complete genomeSATV
Schmallenberg orthobunyavirusShamonda virusIb An 5550L: HE795105; M: HE795106; S: HE795107Complete genomeSHAV
Serra do Navio orthobunyavirusSerra do Navio virusBeAr 103645L: KX817333; M: KX817334; S: KX817335L: NC_043641; M: NC_043639; S: NC_043640Complete genomeSDNV
Shuni orthobunyavirusShuni virusSAE1809L: KF153118; M: KF153117 ; S: KC510272L: NC_043699; M: NC_043697; S: NC_043698Complete genomeSHUV
Shuni orthobunyavirusKaikalur virusVRC 713423-2L: MH484297; M: MH484298; S: MH484299Complete genomeKAIV
Simbu orthobunyavirusSimbu virusSA Ar 53L: HE795108; M: HE795109; S: HE795110L: NC_018476; M: NC_018478; S: NC_018477Complete genomeSIMV
Simbu orthobunyavirusPara virusNo entry in GenbankPARAV
Snowshoe hare orthobunyavirussnowshoe hare virusL: EU203678; M: EU262553; S: EU294510Complete genomeSSHV
Snowshoe hare orthobunyavirusKhatanga virus; Chatanga virusLEIV-18733L: HQ734817; M: HQ734821; S: HQ734824Complete genomeKHATV
Sororoca orthobunyavirusSororoca virusBeAr32149L: JN572071; M: JN572072; S: JN572073L: NC_043570; M: NC_043571; S: NC_043572Complete genomeSORV
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusTacaiuma virusBeAn73L: MF497778; M: MF497776; S: MF497775L: NC_043692; M: NC_043694; S: NC_043693Complete genomeTCMV
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusCoAr 1071 virusNo entry in GenbankCA1071V
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusCoAr 3627 virusNo entry in GenbankCA3626V
Tacaiuma orthobunyavirusVirgin River virusNo entry in GenbankVRV
Tahyna orthobunyavirusŤahyňa virusXJ0625L: EU665255; M: EU622819; S: EU622820Complete genomeTAHV
Tataguine orthobunyavirusTataguine virusH9963L: KP792678; M: KP792677; S: KP792676L: NC_043607; M: NC_043608; S: NC_043606Complete genomeTATV
Tensaw orthobunyavirusTensaw virusTSV-FE3-66FBL: FJ943510; M: FJ943508; S: FJ943505L: NC_043546; M: NC_043548; S: NC_043547Complete genomeTENV
Tete orthobunyavirusTete virusSAAn 3518L: KP792681; M: KP792680; S: KP792679L: NC_039184; M: NC_039183; S: NC_039185Complete genomeTETEV
Tete orthobunyavirusBahig virusEgB 90L: KP792654; M: KP792653; S: KP792652Complete genomeBAHV
Tete orthobunyavirusMatruh virusAn 1047-61L: KP792693; M: KP792692; S: KP792691Complete genomeMTRV
Tete orthobunyavirusTsuruse virusNo entry in GenbankTSUV
Tete orthobunyavirusWeldona virus76V-21935M: EU409297Partial genomeWELV
Thimiri orthobunyavirusThimiri virusVRC 66414L: MH484336; M: MH484337; S: MH484338Complete genomeTHIV
Timboteua orthobunyavirusTimboteua virusNo entry in GenbankTBTV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirustrivittatus virusEklundL: KR149249; M: KR149248; S: KR149247Complete genomeTVTV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirusAchiote virusPanAR395145L: KY555808; M: KY555809; S: KY555810Complete genomeACHOV
Trivittatus orthobunyavirusinfirmatus virusTampa 08L: KY569262; M: KY569263; S: KY569264Complete genomeINFV
Turlock orthobunyavirusUmbre virusIG1424L: KP792687; M: KP792686; S: KP792685L: NC_043037; M: NC_043036; S: NC_043035Complete genomeUMBV
Turlock orthobunyavirusLednice virusNo entry in GenbankLEDV
Turlock orthobunyavirusTurlock virusNo entry in GenbankTURV
Utinga orthobunyavirusUtinga virusBe An 84785L: KF697154; M: KF697155; S: KF697156L: NC_043594; M: NC_043595; S: NC_043596Complete genomeUTIV
Utinga orthobunyavirusUtive virusPan An 48878L: KF697157; M: KF697159; S: KF697158Complete genomeUTEV
Witwatersrand orthobunyavirusWitwatersrand virusSAAr 1062L: KP792690; M: KP792689; S: KP792690L: NC_043674; M: NC_043675; S: NC_043673Complete genomeWITV
Wolkberg orthobunyavirusWolkberg virus2562_SA3L: KX470551; M: KX470552; S: KX470553L: NC_034633; M: NC_034631; S: NC_034632Complete genomeWBV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusWyeomyia virusoriginalL: JN572080; M: JN572081; S: JN572082L: NC_039186; M: NC_039187; S: NC_039188Complete genomeWYOV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusTaiassui virusBeAr671L: JN572074; M: JN572075; S: JN572076Complete genomeTAIAV
Wyeomyia orthobunyavirusTucunduba virusBeAR701402L: KX579499; M: KX579500; S: KX579501Complete genomeTUCV
Zegla orthobunyavirusZegla virusBT5012L: MH017279; M: MH017285; S: MH017272L: NC_043687; M: NC_043688; S: NC_043686Complete genomeZEGV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Derivation of names

Orthobunyavirus is derived from Bunyamwera village (Uganda, Africa) where the type virus of the genus, Bunyamwera virus, was first isolated.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus Abbreviation

Reference

Antequera virus

ANTV

Baakal virus

L: MN092353;
M: MN092353;
S: MN092354

BKAV

(Kopp et al., 2019)

Barranqueras virus

NA

BQSV

Balagodu virus

L: MH507151;
M: MH507152;
S: MH507153#

BLGV

(Whitmer et al., 2018)

Belem virus

BLMV

Belmont virus

L: KT720482*;
M: KT720481*

BELV

(Huang 2016)

Bobaya virus

BOBV

Brazoran virus

L: KC854418;
M: KC854417;
S: KC854416#

BRAZV

(Lanciotti et al., 2013)

Buffalo Creek virus

L: KJ481929;
M: KJ481928;
S: KJ481927#

BUCV

(Gauci et al., 2015)

Gan Gan virus, Salt Ash virus

L: KR013232;
M: KR013233;
S: KR013234#

GGV

(Huang et al., 2016) (Coffey et al., 2014)

Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus

L: MK047412*;
M: MK047406*;
S: MK047401*

KFKSV

(Palya et al., 2019)

Kowanyama virus

L: KT820202;
M: KT820203;
S: KT820204#

KOWV

(Huang et al., 2016)

Little Sussex virus

L: KT720483

LTLSV

(Huang 2016)

Mapputta virus

L: KJ481923;
M: KJ481922;
S: KJ481921#

MAPV

(Gauci et al., 2015)

Maprik virus

L: KJ481926;
M: KJ481925;
S: KJ481924#

MPKV

(Gauci et al., 2015)

Ness Ziona virus

L: MH018032;
M: MH018033;
S: MH018034#

NZV

(Shifman et al., 2019)

Ntwetwe virus

L: MH324826*;
M: MH324827*;
S: MH324828*

NTWV

(Edridge et al., 2019)

Nyangole virus

L: MH685711*;
M: MH685710*;
S: MH685709*

NYGV

(Ramesh et al., 2019)

Okola virus

OKOV

Oyo virus

L: HM639780;
M: HM639779;
S: HM639778#

OYOV

(Shchetinin et al., 2015)

Pacora virus

PCAV

Parker's Farm virus

L: KT720484

PFV

(Huang 2016)

Resistencia virus

RTAV

Sedlec virus

L: MH484327;
M: MH484328;
S: MH484329#

SEDV

Tanga virus

TANV

Termeil virus

TERV

Triniti virus

L: MG792213;
M: MG792214;
S: MG792215#

TNTV

(Lima et al., 2019)

Trubanaman virus, Murrumbidgee virus

L: KR013235;
M: KR013236;
S: KR013237#

TRUV

(Huang et al., 2016) (Coffey et al., 2014)

Wǔhàn louse fly virus 1

L: KM817663*;
M: KM817725*;
S: KM817755*

WLFV

(Li et al., 2015)

Yacaaba virus

L: KT820208*;
M: KT820209*;
S: KT820210*

YACV

(Huang et al., 2016)

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
* partial genome, # complete coding genome