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Wēnlǐng frogfish arenaviruses 1 and 2 (WlFAV-1/2) are the only currently classified antennaviruses. Both viruses have been found in fish (Shi et al., 2018). Notably, antennaviruses have genomes consisting of 3, rather than 2, genomic segments and likely do not encode the zinc finger matrix (Z) protein, which is encoded by mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses.
Viruses have 1 ambisense and 2 negative-sense single-stranded RNA segments. The termini of the RNAs contain inverted complementary sequences, likely encoding transcription and replication initiation signals (Shi et al., 2018).
Based on sequence data only, viruses likely express 4 structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L), and a protein of unknown function (Shi et al., 2018).
The S RNA of antennaviruses encodes the nucleoprotein (NP); the M RNA encodes the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and an unknown protein; and the L RNA encodes the RNA-dependent polymerase (Figure 5.Arenaviridae.) (Shi et al., 2018).
Figure 1.Antennavirus. Schematic representation of the trisegmented antennavirus genome organization. The 5'-and 3'-ends of all segments (S, M and L) are complementary at their termini, likely promoting the formation of circular ribonucleoprotein complexes within the virion. GPC, glycoprotein precursor; L, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; NP, nucleoprotein. Intergenic regions (IGRs), which form hairpin structures (not shown), separate open reading frames.
Antennaviruses were discovered in 2011 by next generation sequencing of samples taken from striated frogfish (Antennarius striatus Shaw, 1794) captured by fishing trawlers in the East China Sea (Shi et al., 2018).
Antennavirus: from Antennarius striatus, the fish species to which the presumed host of WlFAV-1 and WlFAV-2, striated frogfish, has been assigned (Shi et al., 2018).
The parameters used to assign viruses to different species in the genus are:
Phylogenetic relationships within the genus are unknown due to absence of sequence information beyond two single genome sequences of two viruses.
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