Polyomaviridae - v201911

Polyomaviridae - v201911

Ugo Moens, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber​, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Mariet C. W. Feltkamp, Matthew D. Daugherty, Ernst J. Verschoor and Bernhard Ehlers

Chapter contents

Posted June 2017, revised July 2018

Polyomaviridae: The family

Member taxa

Supporting information


A summary of this ICTV Report chapter has been published as an ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile article in the Journal of General Virology, and should be cited when referencing this online chapter as follows: 

Moens, U., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Lauber, C., Ramqvist, T., Feltkamp, M.C.W., Daugherty, M.D., Verschoor, E.J., Ehlers, B., and ICTV Report Consortium, 2017, ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: PolyomaviridaeJournal of General Virology, 98: 11591160


The Polyomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with dsDNA genomes of approximately 5,000 base pairs. Phylogenetic relationships among polyomaviruses, based on the amino acid sequence of the viral protein large tumor antigen, have resulted in the delineation of four genera: Alphapolyomavirus, Betapolyomavirus, Gammapolyomavirus and Deltapolyomavirus. The members of these genera can infect mammals and birds, and polyomavirus genomes have recently been detected in fish. Each family member has a restricted host range. Some members are known human and veterinary pathogens causing symptomatic infection or cancer in their natural host. Clinical manifestations are observed primarily in immunocompromised patients. 

Table 1.Polyomaviridae. Characteristics of the family Polyomaviridae.



Typical member

Simian virus 40 (J02400), species Macaca mulatta polyomavirus 1, genus Betapolyomavirus


Non-enveloped, 40–45 nm, icosahedral


Approximately 5 kbp circular dsDNA


Bidirectional from an unique origin of replication


Early and late transcripts, alternative splicing, alternative ORFs

Host Range

Mammals, birds and fish


Four genera containing more than 80 species



Mature virions measure approximately 40–45 nm in diameter and consist of 88% protein and 12% DNA. VP1 is the major protein and accounts for 75% of the total virion protein mass. For most mammalian polyomaviruses, VP2 and VP3 are minor capsid proteins, and bird polyomaviruses have an additional unique VP4. The virions are non-enveloped with a capsid that has a T=7dextro (right-handed) icosahedral symmetry and is made up of 72 pentameric capsomers (Figure 1.Polyomaviridae). Each pentamer is composed of five VP1 molecules. The capsomers are interlinked by the C-terminal arm of VP1. Capsomer contacts are further stabilized by calcium ions and disulfide bonds between the pentamers. A single copy of VP2 or VP3 binds in a hairpin manner into the cavity on the internal face of each pentamer. The VP4 of bird polyomaviruses is located between VP1 and the viral genome. Each virion contains a single copy of a circular dsDNA. The mature viral genome is organized as a minichromosome packed with histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. The VP1 N-terminus is bound to the packaged DNA, but VP2/3 can also be associated with the viral genome (Hurdiss et al., 2016, Shen et al., 2011).

Figure 1.Polyomaviridae. Three dimensional structure of an SV40 particle at 3.1 Å resolution obtained using X-ray diffraction (Protein Data Base ID 1SVA, (Stehle et al., 1996)). The pentameric VP1 subunits are tied together by extended C-terminal arms. The diameter of this particle is about 500 Angstroms (Å) or 50 nm.  Reproduced with permission obtained from RCSB Protein Data Bank.

Physicochemical and physical properties

Virus particles have a sedimentation coefficient S20,w of 240S. Infectious particles have a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.34 g/cm3, and empty capsids have 1.29 g/cm3. Virions are stable at 50oC for 1 h, but are unstable under these conditions in the presence of 1M MgCl2. Being naked viruses, they are also resistant to lipid solvents (Imperiale and Major 2013). When VP1 is expressed alone, it can form virus-like particles (VLPs) ranging in size from 20 nm to 60 nm. Recombinant VP1 can also self-assemble and package dsDNA molecules of 5–9.4 kbp. However, VLPs seem to package a lower level of histones than native virions (Hurdiss et al., 2016, Fang et al., 2012).

Genome size

The genome of most polyomaviruses is approximately 5,000 bp (Figure 2.Polyomaviridae). The genomes of members of the recognized species vary from 3,962 bp (giant guitar fish polyoma virus (GfPyV1; KP264963); species Rhynchobatus djiddensis polyomavirus 1) to 7,369 bp (black sea bass-associated polyomavirus 1 (BassPyV1; KP071318); species Centropristis striata polyomavirus 1). Of the known human polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; HM011556), species Human polyomavirus 5, has the largest genome (5,387 bp), and Saint Louis polyomavirus (STLPyV; JX463183), species Human polyomavirus 11, has the smallest (4,776 bp). Among known bird polyomaviruses, budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV; AF241168), species Aves polyomavirus 1,  has a genome of 4,981 bp, and the largest so far known avian polyomavirus genome is 5,421 bp (canary polyomavirus (CaPyV; GU345044), species Serinus canaria polyomavirus 1 (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016).

Figure 2.Polyomaviridae. Genome organizations and expression products for the type species of the four polyomavirus genera. Genomic annotations were taken from NCBI GenBank for the following viruses: (A) mouse polyomavirus (MPyV; AF442959), species Mus musculus polyomavirus 1, genus Alphapolyomavirus; (B) simian virus 40 (SV40; J02400), species Macaca mulatta polyomavirus, genus Betapolyomavirus; (C) budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV; AF241168), species Aves polyomavirus 1, genus Gammapolyomavirus; (D) human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6; HM011560), species Human polyomavirus 6, genus Deltapolyomavirus. Each panel has two circular layers, as detailed in the key inset at the center. The inner layer depicts the six reading frames of the genome, with frame +1 starting at the first nucleotide of the linearized genome clock-wise and frame -1 starting at the last nucleotide in reverse direction; open reading frames (ORFs) are indicated by colors. The outer layer depicts spliced transcripts, with coding exons colored according to the respective ORFs. Untranslated regions and introns are shown as solid and dashed lines, respectively. The radial axis is in bp units of 100. Figure layout adapted from (Kazem et al., 2016).


Typical polyomavirus genomes encode two regulatory proteins (large tumor antigen or LTAg and small tumor antigen or STAg) that are expressed early during infection, and three capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, which are expressed after the onset of viral DNA replication and are therefore designated as late proteins. However, some polyomaviruses produce additional early and late proteins (Table 2. Polyomaviridae). A well-populated lineage of polyomaviruses that infect a diverse range of hosts, including humans, encode an additional open reading frame (ORF) that is expressed either as a separate protein (alternative tumor antigen or ALTO) or as the second exon of middle tumor antigen (MTAg) early during infection (Carter et al., 2013, Lauber et al., 2015, van der Meijden et al., 2015). An additional late protein encoded by simian virus 40 (SV40) is named VP4. However, this is a regulatory protein involved in egress and does not form a structural component of virus particles. Putative ORFs for VP4 are also present in BK polyomavirus (BKPyV; V01108), species Human polyomavirus 1), JC polyomavirus (JCPyV; J02226), species Human polyomavirus 2, and some non-human primate polyomaviruses (Ehlers and Moens 2014). SV40, BKPyV and JCPyV express a peptide, designated agnoprotein (Saribas et al., 2016). This regulatory protein plays a role in virus transcription, maturation and egress. A putative gene encoding a peptide with amino acid similarity to agnoprotein is present in genomes of other mammalian polyomaviruses (Ehlers and Moens 2014). Like SV40 VP4, agnoprotein is not a component of the virus particle. Avian polyomaviruses encode a unique fourth capsid protein designated VP4. This protein lacks similarity to SV40 VP4. It may also play a role in genome packaging and capsid formation (Shen et al., 2011).

Table 2A.Polyomaviridae Human polyomavirus-encoded proteins. The proteins of SV40 are also included. The number of amino acid residues for each protein is given.


Genus Betapolyomavirus

Genus Alphapolyomavirus

Genus Deltapolyomavirus






































































































































































Tiny T


























































































aAbbreviations: agno=agnoprotein; ALTO=alternative tumor antigen; MTAg=middle tumor antigen; LTAg=large tumor antigen; STAg=small tumor antigen. Virus name abbreviations are found in the Member species tables
bputative, existence not proven.
c(Norkiene et al., 2015)
d(Abend et al., 2009)

Table 2B.Polyomaviridae. Avian and fish polyomavirus-encoded proteins. The number of amino acid residues for each protein is given.


Genus Gammapolyomavirus

currently not assigned to a genus





Butcherbird PyV











































































































































aAbbreviations: alT=alternative T; sVp1=N-terminal extended VP1. Virus name abbreviations are found in the Member species tables.


Free lipids are not present in mature virions. However, covalent linkage of myristic acid to glycine at position 2 (Gly-2) in the VP2 proteins of mouse polyomavirus (MPyV; AF442959), species Mus musculus polyomavirus 1, and SV40 virions has been reported (Streuli and Griffin 1987). Gly-2 is conserved in VP2 of all known polyomaviruses, and its mutation in MPyV hampers viral replication and reduces infectivity and pathogenicity (Krauzewicz et al., 1990, Mannova et al., 2002, Sahli et al., 1993). 


None present.

Genome organization

The genome contains two distinct transcriptional regions: the early and the late region, referring to the stage of productive infection during which they are transcribed. A non-coding control region (NCCR) encompassing the origin of DNA replication and the promoters and transcriptional enhancers for early and late region transcription separates the early and late region (Figure 2.Polyomaviridae). Transcription of the early region results in a single precursor mRNA from which different transcripts are generated through alternative splicing. The major translational products generated from these spliced mRNAs are the regulatory proteins LTAg and STAg. Several polyomaviruses express additional early proteins or their genomes encode additional putative early proteins (Table 2.Polyomaviridae). The late region is transcribed from the complementary strand and in opposite direction from the early region. The late region codes for at least two late proteins, VP1 and VP2, which are translated from different mRNAs as a result of alternative splicing (Figure 2.Polyomaviridae). For most polyomaviruses, a third structural protein (VP3) is generated from the same transcript as the VP2 protein by use of an internal, in-frame start codon (Imperiale and Major 2013). For SV40, a VP4 was identified in the same ORF as VP2/VP3, and was found to be necessary for lysis of infected cells. This VP4 ORF is conserved in BKPyV and JCPyV, but expression of this protein remains to be proven (Daniels et al., 2007). Some polyomaviruses have a short ORF upstream of the start codon of VP1, referred to as the agno gene, that encodes a hydrophobic protein known as agnoprotein. The VP4 protein of bird polyomaviruses is derived from an additional ORF located upstream of the VP2-encoding late mRNA (Johne and Muller 2007). Some mammalian polyomavirus lineages are the result of ancient recombination events between early and late regions of the genome (Lim et al., 2013, Tao et al., 2013).

Transcription and replication

Transcription of the early and late genes is directed by the NCCR, which is located between the early and late regions. The NCCR shows the highest sequence variability among polyomaviruses. However, conserved LTAg-binding motifs (5'-GRGGC-3') are present throughout the family. The early promoter has a TATA-box, whereas the late promoter lacks such a motif. The NCCR contains multiple binding sites for cellular transcription factors (Imperiale and Major 2013).

LTAg is involved in the switch from early to late viral gene expression. At low concentrations of LTAg, this protein will occupy high affinity LTAg-binding motifs and stimulate early transcription and viral DNA replication. Later in infection, LTAg will also bind to low affinity binding motifs as LTAg concentration increases (Imperiale and Major 2013). These motifs are located downstream from the TATA box. As a result, LTAg prevents early transcription by blocking passage of the RNA polymerase II complex. LTAg is also involved in the switch to late transcription and facilitates late transcription by recruiting transcription factors. For SV40, it was shown that a cellular repressor present in low concentration prevents late transcription (Wiley et al., 1993). As the viral genome replicates, more viral genome copies are produced and the repressor is competed out, allowing late transcription. Viral DNA that is transcribed during the late phase of infection seems to be nucleosome-free in the NCCR, allowing more active transcription (Imperiale and Major 2013).

The NCCRs of clinical isolates of BKPyV and JCPyV show extensive rearrangements. This hypervariability affects viral transcription, replication and cytopathology in cell cultures (Gosert et al., 2008, Gosert et al., 2010). The NCCRs of other polyomaviruses have been less studied, but so far show only minor nucleotide changes or short deletions. For example, KI polyomavirus (KIPyV; EF127960), species Human polyomavirus 3, MCPyV, Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV; GU989205), species Human polyomavirus 8 and human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9; HQ696595), species Human polyomavirus 9 strains with mutations in the NCCR have been described (Kazem et al., 2016, Lednicky et al., 2014, Schowalter et al., 2010, Song et al., 2016), but the biological consequences of these mutations have not been elucidated.

The best-studied polyomaviruses (SV40, BKPyV, JCPyV, MCPyV and MPyV) all encode a microRNA (miRNA) in the late genome region (DeCaprio and Garcea 2013, Sullivan et al., 2009). This miRNA is complementary to LTAg mRNA and thus can downregulate LTAg expression. SV40 miRNA reduces cytokine production and the susceptibility of virus-infected cells to cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, SV40 miRNA can interfere with the JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by targeting dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP8, although the biological consequence of this interaction is not known (Chen et al., 2013). BKPyV and JCPyV miRNAs target ULBP3, which is the ligand of the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D). This may prevent the elimination of BKPyV- and JCPyV-infected cells by natural killer cells (Bauman et al., 2011). MCPyV miRNA may downregulate expression of the cellular proteins RUNX1 (a transcription factor), RBM9/FOX2 (a splicing factor), and MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2, a protein involved in gene regulation) (Lee et al., 2011), but the implication for MCPyV biology remains elusive. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV; JQ178241), species Procyon lotor polyomavirus 1, Gorilla gorilla gorilla polyomavirus 1 (GgorgPyV1; HQ385752), species Gorilla gorilla polyomavirus 1 and Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 2a (PtrovPyV2a; HQ385748), species Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 3 are so far the only non-human polyomaviruses shown to encode bona fide miRNAs (Chen et al., 2015), and putative miRNAs are predicted at similar locations in the genomes of other polyomaviruses, including Cercopithecus erythrotis polyomavirus 1 (CeryPyV1; JX159985), species Cercopithecus erythrotis polyomavirus 1, vervet monkey polyomavirus 2 (VmPyV2; AB767299), species Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 2 and yellow baboon polyomavirus 2 (YbPyV2; AB767295), species Papio cynocephalus polyomavirus 2 (Ehlers and Moens 2014).


The polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 determines antigenicity. VP1 shows extended and structurally variable surface loops that emanate from a conserved b-sheet core structure. These surface loops are referred to as the BC-, DE-, EF-, GH and HI-loops (Stroh et al., 2014). The surface-exposed BC-loop is highly antigenic, and it is markedly divergent in the VP1 proteins of polyomaviruses, which may explain why little or no serological cross-reactivity is observed. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) with recombinant VP1, VP1 pentamers or VP1-based VLPs are now commonly used to distinguish antibodies against members of polyomavirus species. These assays can also be used to discriminate among isolates of a particular polyomavirus species, as has been shown for BKPyV and MCPyV antigenic variants that are sometimes designated serotypes (Carter et al., 2009, Kean et al., 2009, Pastrana et al., 2012). Antigenicity and seroprevalence in nonhuman mammals have been poorly investigated. Sera from raccoons with and without tumours were tested for antibodies against RacPyV VP1 protein by using a VLP-based ELISA. Juvenile raccoons had a seropositivity of 16.8%, whereas 45.7% of samples from adult raccoons were seropositive. Antibodies were significantly more common in raccoons with tumours than in healthy animals (Church et al., 2016). Antibodies specific for chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in captive and wild-caught animals by using a VLP-based ELISA, and sera from captive and free-ranging macaque species contained antibodies that cross-reacted in a SV40-based ELISA (Verschoor et al., 2008, Zielonka et al., 2011). Another study showed that polyomavirus VP1 antibodies are very common in nonhuman primates (Scuda et al., 2013).


Host range and evolution

Polyomaviruses infect members of many mammalian and avian orders and were long considered as parasites of tetrapods. However, complete polyomavirus genome sequences have now been determined from members of at least three fish species: black sea bass (Centropristis striata), giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) and sharp-spined notothen (Trematomus pennellii) and the viruses BassPyV1, GfPyV1 and sharp-spined notothenia polyomavirus (SspPyV; KP768176) have now been assigned to the species Centropristis striata polyomavirus 1, Rhynchobatus djiddensis polyomavirus 1 and Trematomus pennellii polyomavirus 1, respectively (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016). Polyomavirus-like sequences have also been recovered from arthropods by mining whole genome sequences, transcriptome shotgun assemblies and short read archives (Buck et al., 2016). These sequences did not allow for the identification of bona fide polyomaviruses as they were (i) partial and integrated in the genome of their hosts (spiders and bristletails), or (ii) complete episomal sequences that did not exhibit the typical genome organization of polyomaviruses (polyomavirus associated with Baja California bark scorpion; Centruroides exilicauda). These sequences may indicate that polyomaviruses also infect or previously infected invertebrates and testify of an ancient association of polyomaviruses or polyomavirus-like entities with animals (Buck et al., 2016).

Polyomavirus diversity has been shaped by a complex mixture of evolutionary processes (Buck et al., 2016, Madinda et al., 2016). Polyomaviruses are generally host-specific and their diversification has thus likely been strongly influenced by divergence with their hosts. Calibrating such co-divergence events with molecular clock analyses suggests relatively slow rates of molecular evolution (ca. 10-8 substitutions per site per year; (Buck et al., 2016, Madinda et al., 2016, Krumbholz et al., 2009). Lineage duplications have also occurred repeatedly, as exemplified by the 13 human and 8 chimpanzee polyomaviruses identified to date. Finally, recombination has also played a role in polyomavirus evolution. Recombination has reshuffled the early and late regions of long-diverged polyomavirus genomes, e.g. KIPyV, WU polyomavirus (WUPyV; EF444549), species Human polyomavirus 4, human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6; HM011560), species Human polyomavirus 6, human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7; HM011566), species Human polyomavirus 7, and STLPyV (Lim et al., 2013, Tao et al., 2013, Buck et al., 2016), as well as fragments of polyomaviruses and viruses belonging to other known virus families and or unknown groups, as exemplified by the discoveries of the bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus types 1 and 2 and the virus causing viral endothelial cell necrosis of eel (Bennett et al., 2008, Mizutani et al., 2011, Woolford et al., 2008). 

Epidemiology and biological properties of mammalian polyomaviruses

The exact routes of infection and transmission, and the identities of genuine host cells, are unclear for most mammalian polyomaviruses. The skin seems to be a natural habitat for MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7 and TSPyV, with direct skin-to-skin contact as a source of transmission. DNA from MW polyomavirus (MWPyV;JQ898291), species Human polyomavirus 10, STL polyomavirus (STLPyV; JX463183), species Human polyomavirus 11 and human polyomavirus 12 (HPyV12; JX308829), species Human polyomavirus 12 has been detected in the gastrointestinal tract, and the shedding of other polyomaviruses in urine and faeces. This suggests faecal/urine-oral route of transmission (Schowalter et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2016). Respiratory transmission is also possible because JCPyV, BKPyV, KIPyV and WUPyV are often found in tonsillar tissue and respiratory aspirates, suggesting an aerogenic route of infection. Sewage water has also been found to contain low level of polyomaviruses, indicating that virus infection may be acquired through drinking and eating (Bofill-Mas et al., 2013). Vertical transmission has been suggested for BKPyV and JCPyV, but convincing proof is lacking.

Serological studies have shown that human polyomaviruses are ubiquitous in healthy individuals, with seropositivity varying from 40% to 90%, depending on the virus (Kean et al., 2009, Gossai et al., 2016). Primary infection occurs typically during early childhood, and sustained antibody titres throughout life indicate a persistent infection. There is a tendency towards higher seropositivity in older people. 

The cells that host human polyomaviruses in vivo, are poorly characterized. BKPyV persists in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, and salivary gland cells may also be permissive. JCPyV is latent in the kidney, but can reactivate under immunocompromised conditions. JCPyV infects glial cells, and MCPyV seems to infect dermal fibroblasts (DeCaprio and Garcea 2013, Liu et al., 2016). TSPyV infects the inner root sheath cells of the hair follicle (Kazem et al., 2012). The DNA of the other human polyomaviruses has been detected in various cell types, but whether they represent bona fide host cells remains to be determined.

MPyV is the most well studied PyV with regards to infection in vivo. MPyV can potentially infect a very broad range of cells, with more than 30 different cell types infected after inoculation of MPyV in newborn mice (Dawe et al., 1987). After intranasal or subcutaneous injection of MPyV in newborn mice, replication has been observed in a wide range of organs, including liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and bones (Demengeot et al., 1990, Dubensky et al., 1984). After inoculation of adult immunocompetent mice, MPyV replication is more limited, peaking at 1-2 weeks post infection and being mainly restricted to bone, heart and lymph nodes (Berke and Dalianis 1993), although other organs are also involved. In adult immunocompetent mice, MPyV infection is cleared within two months (Berke and Dalianis 1993), whereas in newborn mice infection persists longer, especially in the kidneys (Berke et al., 1996). In immunodeficient mice, MPyV infection is mostly systemic and, depending on the immunodeficiency, may be lethal (Berke et al., 1998).

Several mammalian polyomaviruses require cellular glycans as host cell receptors. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are required for the attachment and entry of BKPyV into human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, and GD2 and GD3 increase the infection efficiency (O'Hara et al., 2014). JCPyV uses GT1b, GD1b and GD2. Unique for JCPyV is that it also makes contact with the pentasaccharide lactoseries tetrasaccharide c, and serotonin receptor 5HT2A acts as a possible co-receptor. MCPyV binds GT1b and uses glycosaminoglycans as possible co-receptors. HPyV9 VP1 preferentially binds sialyllactosamine compounds terminating in 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid over those terminating in 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid. SV40 utilizes GM1 as a receptor, and MHC class I functions as a possible co-receptor. GD1a and GT1b are receptors identified for MPyV, and a4b1-integrin can function as a co-receptor. HPyV6 and HPyV7 may employ non-ganglioside receptorsas suggested by high-resolution X-ray studies of the VP1 proteins. This was confirmed by the absence of interaction between VP1 and a2,3- and a2,6-linked sialylated glycans in solution, by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and flow-cytometric single cell-binding studies (Stroh et al., 2014). Apart from receptor variation, the site on VP1 that is used for interaction varies among mammalian polyomaviruses (Stroh et al., 2015).

After entering the cells, virion decapsidation is initiated in the cytosol. Partial uncoating exposes the nuclear localization signals in VP2/VP3 and helps to guide the particles into the nucleus, where further disassembly occurs. The viral genome remains episomal. At an early stage in infection, transcription occurs from one strand and in one direction, giving rise to mRNAs encoding LTAg, STAg and alternative early proteins. LTAg autoregulates its own transcription and is the only viral protein required for replication. The DnaJ domain in the N-terminal part of LTAg as well as the ATPase/helicase activity, are necessary for efficient viral DNA replication. LTAg of most polyomaviruses binds repeats of the 5'-GRGGC-3' motif, while LTAg of Gammapolyomavirus interacts with the palindromic motif 5'-CC(W)6GG-3'. LTAg binds the tumour suppressor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma family members, driving the cell into the S phase. STAg also contains the DnaJ domain and can bind to and inactivate cellular protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which leads to activation of cyclin D1 and cyclin A, promoting G1 to S phase progression. The middle T antigen expressed contains the DnaJ domain and binds PP2A. The role of the alternative early proteins is less well understood, although it has been suggested that MTAg/ALTO is involved in adaptation of polyomavirus species from many different hosts, including bats, rodents, monkeys, and hominids including humans (Lauber et al., 2015). Some of the alternative early proteins can bind the retinoblastoma family members. MCPyV ALTO protein is not required for replication.

After viral replication has been initiated, the late genes are transcribed from the opposite strand in an opposite direction from the early genes. The capsid proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported into the nucleus, where assembly with the viral genome into viral particles occurs. The viral genome is packed with histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Viruses are released by lysis-dependent or -independent mechanisms (Imperiale and Major 2013, DeCaprio and Garcea 2013). The SV40 VP4 protein and the JCPyV agnoprotein have been shown to facilitate viral egress. Agnoprotein is also involved in virus assembly, as BKPyV, JCPyV and SV40 mutants lacking the agnoprotein display impaired production of infectious virus particles (Saribas et al., 2016). For MCPyV, it has been suggested that dermal fibroblasts are the genuine host cells where infectious virus particles are produced. Infection of non-permissive Merkel cells that do not sustain the viral life cycle results in integration of the MCPyV genome and transformation (Liu et al., 2016).  

Epidemiology and biological properties of avian polyomaviruses

Information on avian polyomavirus infection, route of transmission, spread and seropositivity is scarce. BFDV seems to be common in many, but not all, captive and wild psittaccine bird species tested thus far (Deb et al., 2010, Herrera et al., 2001, Khan et al., 2000, Phalen et al., 1993, Raidal et al., 1998, Wainright et al., 1987). Birds belonging to other orders have also been shown to be infected with polyomaviruses. In some cases, these infections appear to be common. For example, antibodies to goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV; AY140894), species Anser anser polyomavirus 1 were detected in sera of 43% of healthy geese (Zielonka et al., 2006). The presence of polyomaviruses in apparently healthy birds suggests asymptomatic or subclinical symptoms. Virus is shed in droppings and feather dander, and is transmitted by direct contact, contaminated aerosols or infected fomites. Little is known on how avian polyomaviruses spread after initial infection. In parrots exposed to BFDV, virus could be detected in blood, suggesting that the virus can spread by viremia (Phalen et al., 2000).

Epidemiology and biological properties of non-tetrapod polyomaviruses

Three polyomaviruses isolated from fish, BassPyV1, GfPyV1 and AspPyV, have been recognized as different species, which have not yet been assigned to a genus. The BassPyV1 genome was determined by deep sequencing of a mixed tissue sample including scales, skin, lateral muscle, mouth, eye, anal/genital opening, swim bladder and liver. Nothing is known about BassPyV1 biology.

Polyomavirus-related sequences from a scorpion have been reported (see above) but are currently not classified(Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016).


Human polyomavirus infections in healthy individuals have not been associated with clinical symptoms or diseases. Immunocompromising conditions can lead to human polyomavirus reactivation and clinical diseases. BKPyV can cause nephropathy in renal transplant patients and is linked to hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. BKPyV has been suggested to play a role in prostate cancer. JCPyV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in immunocompromised patients, especially HIV/AIDS-positive individuals, and may be involved in colon and brain cancer. MCPyV is linked to Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive skin cancer (Feng et al., 2008). TSPyV is observed in trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disease exclusively seen in immunocompromised patients (van der Meijden et al., 2010). HPyV7 DNA and LTAg expression were detected in thymic epithelial tumours. However, the role of HPyV7 and other human polyomaviruses (except MCPyV) in cancer is disputed (DeCaprio and Garcea 2013, Toptan et al., 2016).

Despite their ability to transform cells in culture and induce tumours in animal models, other mammalian polyomaviruses do not seem to be involved in cancer in their natural host. One known exception is RacPyV which may contribute to the development of malignant brain tumours in raccoons (Dela Cruz et al., 2013). The poliovirus vaccination program (1955-1961) with SV40-contaminated vaccine has unintendedly introduced SV40 into the human population. SV40 alone or together with exposure to asbestos has been linked to brain tumours and mesotheliomaespectively, but the evidence is insufficient to confirm SV40 as a cause of these cancers (Qi et al., 2011). 

Avian polyomaviruses cause haemorrhage, lethargy and death in birds, but none of the known avian polyomaviruses induces tumours in animal models or their natural host. BFDV was able to transform hamster embryo cells, but not murine 3T3 cells in vitro (Dykstra et al., 1984, Lehn and Muller 1986). 

Genus demarcation criteria

Reconstructed evolutionary relationships were used for the delineation of genera and derived from analyses of LTAg amino acid sequences (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016). LTAg was used instead of whole genome analyses, in order to avoid the confounding effect of recombination that has occurred between early and late regions of the genome in some mammalian lineages. Four genera were delineated (Alphapolyomavirus, Betapolyomavirus, Gammapolyomavirus and Deltapolyomavirus), and 83 species have been assigned to these genera (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016). Another five are unassigned in the family.

Derivation of names 

Polyoma: from Greek poly, meaning “many”, and oma, denoting “tumours”

Alpha, beta, gamma, delta: first 4 letters in the Greek alphabet

Phylogenetic relationships

Phylogenetic relationships among polyomaviruses based on the amino acid sequence of LTAg are shown in Figure 3.Polyomaviridae.

Figure 3.Polyomaviridae. Phylogenetic relationships of polyomaviruses based on conserved amino acid blocks of the LTAg coding sequence. Polyomaviruses are denoted by Genbank accession number, virus name, and after the dashed lines, by species name; viruses are grouped into genera by both colouring and labels at the right-hand side of the figure. For phylogenetic analyses, the previously published recommendations were followed (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016). Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain analyses generated a maximum clade credibility tree whose topology was essentially similar to the topology of the maximum likelihood tree presented in this figure. Grey branches are relatively weakly supported, with Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test (SH-like aLRT) values <0.95 and/or posterior probability <0.95. This phylogenetic tree and corresponding sequence alignment are available to download from the Resources page.

Based on evolutionary relationships, the Polyomaviridae Study Group has divided the family into four genera. Fish polyomaviruses may merit the establishment of a further genus based on their clear phylogenetic distinctness from tetrapod polyomaviruses.

Similarity with other taxa 

Bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus types 1 and 2 (BPCV1 and BPCV2, respectively) have circular dsDNA genomes that are similar to those of members of the family Papillomaviridae in size (ca. 7.3–7.5 kbp) and possibly in some aspects of gene content, in that they encode putative papillomavirus L1 and L2 structural proteins. However, they also encode putative polyomavirus LTAgs and STAgs. The origin of these viruses is not clear, although it could be explained as being due to recombination between a polyomavirus and a papillomavirus. A virus causing endothelial cell necrosis in Japanese eels has been identified that has a circular dsDNA genome of 15,131 bp, and a related virus with a circular dsDNA genome of 14,334 bp has been discovered in diseased marbled eels. Both genomes contain a sequence that encodes an LTAg-like protein. However, other coding sequences do not display similarity to those of polyomaviruses, and the evolutionary history of these fish viruses is unclear.

Related, unclassified viruses 

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

African green monkey polyomavirus (lymphotropic polyomavirus)



rabbit kidney vacuolating virus



simian virus 12



Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.

These viruses were previously assigned as separate species (Johne et al., 2011), but have been removed from the family as they currently do not meet the species criteria for various reasons (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016). A number of polyomaviruses with full genome sequences from nonhuman primates, bats, even-toed ungulates, and rodents are currently proposed as species or are not assigned as species, either because the data have not been published in scientific journals or because their hosts have not been determined unequivocally (see species definition criterion C1 and C3 in: (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016)). In addition, a plethora of subgenomic polyomavirus sequences from various hosts have been published. As full genomes were not determined (species definition criterion C1 (Calvignac-Spencer et al., 2016)), the corresponding viruses have not been assigned to species. 

Genus: Alphapolyomavirus

Distinguishing features

Members infect humans and other mammals. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and raccoon polyomavirus RacPyV) are so far the only members known to cause cancer in their natural host.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

  1. Sufficient information on the natural host
  2. Observed genetic distance from a member of the most closely related species is >15% nucleotide difference for the LTAg coding sequence
  3. When two polyomaviruses exhibit <15% observed genetic distance (as defined above), biological properties may be of additional critical importance (e.g. host specificity, disease association, tissue tropism, etc.)

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Acerodon celebensis polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 5b2 5b-2 AB972940 NC_038554 Complete genome BatPyV5b-2
Artibeus planirostris polyomavirus 2 bat polyomavirus 3a-A1055 A1055 JQ958886 NC_038555 Complete genome BatPyV3a-A1055
Artibeus planirostris polyomavirus 3 bat polyomavirus 4a A504 JQ958890 NC_038556 Complete genome BatPyV4a
Ateles paniscus polyomavirus 1 Ateles paniscus polyomavirus 1 1960 JX159987 NC_019853 Complete genome ApanPyV1
Cardioderma cor polyomavirus 1 Cardioderma polyomavirus KY336 JX520659 NC_020067 Complete genome CardiodermaPyV
Carollia perspicillata polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 4b C1109 JQ958889 NC_028120 Complete genome BatPyV4b
Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 1 vervet monkey polyomavirus 1 VMS96 AB767298 NC_019844 Complete genome VmPyV1
Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 3 vervet monkey polyomavirus 3 VMS95/VMS97 AB767297 NC_025898 Complete genome VmPyV3
Dobsonia moluccensis polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 5a 5a AB972945 NC_026768 Complete genome BatPyV5a
Eidolon helvum polyomavirus 1 Eidolon polyomavirus 1 KY270 JX520660 NC_020068 Complete genome EidolonPyV
Gorilla gorilla polyomavirus 1 Gorilla gorilla gorilla polyomavirus 1 5766 HQ385752 NC_025380 Complete genome GgorgPyV1
Human polyomavirus 5 Merkel cell polyomavirus R17b HM011556 NC_010277 Complete genome MCPyV
Human polyomavirus 8 Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus Skin GU989205 NC_014361 Complete genome TSPyV
Human polyomavirus 9 human polyomavirus 9 2540 HQ696595 NC_015150 Complete genome HPyV9
Human polyomavirus 13 New Jersey polyomavirus 2013 KF954417 NC_024118 Complete genome NJPyV
Macaca fascicularis polyomavirus 1 Macaca fascicularis polyomavirus 1 2085 JX159986 NC_019851 Complete genome MfasPyV1
Mesocricetus auratus polyomavirus 1 hamster polyomavirus Berlin-Buch JX036360 NC_001663 Complete genome HaPyV
Miniopterus schreibersii polyomavirus 1 Miniopterus schreibersii polyomavirus 1 12SuB07 LC185213 NC_034220 Complete genome MschPyV1
Miniopterus schreibersii polyomavirus 2 Miniopterus schreibersii polyomavirus 2 12SuB08 LC185216 NC_034221 Complete genome MschPyV2
Molossus molossus polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 3b B1130 JQ958893 NC_028123 Complete genome BatPyV3b
Mus musculus polyomavirus 1 mouse polyomavirus BG AF442959 NC_001515 Complete genome MPyV
Otomops martiensseni polyomavirus 1 Otomops polyomavirus 1 KY157 JX520664 NC_020071 Complete genome OtomopsPyV1
Otomops martiensseni polyomavirus 2 Otomops polyomavirus 2 KY156 JX520658 NC_020066 Complete genome OtomopsPyV2
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 1 chimpanzee polyomavirus Bob FR692334 NC_014743 Complete genome ChPyV
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 2 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 1a 6444 HQ385746 NC_025368 Complete genome PtrovPyV1a
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 3 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 2a 6512 HQ385748 NC_025370 Complete genome PtrovPyV2a
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 4 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 3 3161 JX159980 NC_019855 Complete genome PtrovPyV3
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 5 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 4 3147 JX159981 NC_019856 Complete genome PtrovPyV4
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 6 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 5 5743 JX159982 NC_019857 Complete genome PtrovPyV5
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 7 Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii polyomavirus 2 6350 JX159983 NC_019858 Complete genome PtrosPyV2
Papio cynocephalus polyomavirus 1 yellow baboon polyomavirus 1 BS20 AB767294 NC_025894 Complete genome YbPyV1
Piliocolobus badius polyomavirus 1 Piliocolobus badius polyomavirus 2 5947 KX509984 NC_039051 Complete genome PbadPyV2
Piliocolobus rufomitratus polyomavirus 1 Piliocolobus rufomitratus polyomavirus 1 4601 JX159984 NC_019850 Complete genome PrufPyV1
Pongo abelii polyomavirus 1 Sumatran orang-utan polyomavirus Sum/Pi FN356901 NC_028127 Complete genome OraPyV-Sum
Pongo pygmaeus polyomavirus 1 Bornean orang-utan polyomavirus Bo FN356900 NC_013439 Complete genome OraPyV-Bor
Procyon lotor polyomavirus 1 raccoon polyomavirus R45 JQ178241 NC_023845 Complete genome RacPyV
Pteropus vampyrus polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 5b1 5b-1 AB972944 NC_026767 Complete genome BatPyV5b-1
Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 1 Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 1 3690 KR075943 NC_027531 Complete genome RnorPyV1
Sorex araneus polyomavirus 1 Sorex araneus polyomavirus 1 GER_#4608_MU/06/0215/MV; hu1403 MF374997 Complete genome SaraPyV1
Sorex coronatus polyomavirus 1 Sorex coronatus polyomavirus 1 GER_#7586_MU08/1013 MF374999 Complete genome SminPyV1
Sorex minutus polyomavirus 1 Sorex minutus polyomavirus 1 GER_#7607_MU10/2265 MF401583 Complete genome ScorPyV1
Sturnira lilium polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 3a-B0454 B0454 JQ958888 NC_038557 Complete genome BatPyV3a-B0454
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Genus: Betapolyomavirus

Distinguishing features

The best-studied human polyomaviruses, BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) belong to this genus and are associated with nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, respectively.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

  1. Sufficient information on the natural host
  2. Observed genetic distance from a member of the most closely related species is >15% nucleotide difference for the LTAg coding sequence
  3. When two polyomaviruses exhibit <15% observed genetic distance (as defined above), biological properties may be of additional critical importance (e.g. host specificity, disease association, tissue tropism, etc.)

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Acerodon celebensis polyomavirus 2 bat polyomavirus 6a 6a AB972941 NC_026762 Complete genome BatPyV6a
Artibeus planirostris polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 2c 2c JQ958887 NC_038558 Complete genome BatPyV2c
Canis familiaris polyomavirus 1 Canis familiaris polyomavirus 1 R006926 CT2015 KY341899 NC_034456 Complete genome CfamPyV1
Cebus albifrons polyomavirus 1 Cebus albifrons polyomavirus 1 2141 JX159988 NC_019854 Complete genome CalbPyV1
Cercopithecus erythrotis polyomavirus 1 Cercopithecus erythrotis polyomavirus 1 4077 JX159985 NC_025892 Complete genome CeryPyV1
Chlorocebus pygerythrus polyomavirus 2 vervet monkey polyomavirus 2 VMK96 AB767299 NC_025896 Complete genome VmPyV2
Desmodus rotundus polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 2a AT7 JQ958892 NC_028122 Complete genome BatPyV2a
Dobsonia moluccensis polyomavirus 2 bat polyomavirus 6b 6b AB972947 NC_026770 Complete genome BatPyV6b
Dobsonia moluccensis polyomavirus 3 bat polyomavirus 6c 6c AB972946 NC_026769 Complete genome BatPyV6c
Equus caballus polyomavirus 1 equine polyomavirus CU03 JQ412134 NC_017982 Complete genome EPyV
Human polyomavirus 1 BK polyomavirus Dunlop V01108 NC_001538 Complete genome BK virus; BKV; BKPyV
Human polyomavirus 2 JC polyomavirus Mad1 J02226 NC_001699 Complete genome JC virus; JCV; JCPyV
Human polyomavirus 3 KI polyomavirus Stockholm 60 EF127906 NC_009238 Complete genome KIPyV
Human polyomavirus 4 WU polyomavirus B0 EF444549 NC_009539 Complete genome WU virus; WUPyV
Leptonychotes weddellii polyomavirus 1 Weddell seal polyomavirus 17461 KX533457 NC_032120 Complete genome WsPyV
Loxodonta africana polyomavirus 1 African elephant polyomavirus 1 DK-1/2011 KF147833 NC_022519 Complete genome AelPyV1
Macaca mulatta polyomavirus 1 simian virus 40 776 J02400 NC_001669 Complete genome SV40
Mastomys natalensis polyomavirus 1 Mastomys polyomavirus NR55 AB588640 NC_025895 Complete genome MasPyV
Meles meles polyomavirus 1 Meles meles polyomavirus 1 French KP644238 NC_026473 Complete genome MmelPyV1
Microtus arvalis polyomavirus 1 Microtus arvalis polyomavirus 1 KS13/0947 KR612373 NC_028119 Complete genome CVPyV
Miniopterus africanus polyomavirus 1 Miniopterus polyomavirus KY369 JX520661 NC_020069 Complete genome MiniopterusPyV
Mus musculus polyomavirus 2 mouse pneumotropic virus #6018 KT987216 Complete genome MPtV
Myodes glareolus polyomavirus 1 Myodes glareolus polyomavirus 1 KS/14/201 KR612368 NC_028117 Complete genome BVPyV
Myotis lucifugus polyomavirus 1 Myotis polyomavirus VM2008_14 FJ188392 NC_011310 Complete genome MyPyV
Pan troglodytes polyomavirus 8 Pan troglodytes verus polyomavirus 8 Ch-Regina KT884050 NC_028635 Complete genome PtrovPyV8
Papio cynocephalus polyomavirus 2 yellow baboon polyomavirus 2 BS94/BK94 AB767295 NC_025897 Complete genome YbPyV2
Pteronotus davyi polyomavirus 1 Pteronotus polyomavirus GTM203 JX520662 NC_020070 Complete genome PteronotusPyV
Pteronotus parnellii polyomavirus 1 bat polyomavirus 2b R226 JQ958891 NC_028121 Complete genome BatPyV2b
Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 rat polyomavirus 2 PITT4 KX574453 Complete genome RatPyV2
Rousettus aegyptiacus polyomavirus 1 Rousettus aegyptiacus polyomavirus 1 12SuB01 LC185218 NC_034219 Complete genome RaegPyV1
Saimiri boliviensis polyomavirus 1 squirrel monkey polyomavirus Squi0106 AM748741 NC_009951 Complete genome SquiPyV
Saimiri sciureus polyomavirus 1 Saimiri sciureus polyomavirus 1 2033 JX159989 NC_038559 Complete genome SsciPyV1
Vicugna pacos polyomavirus 1 alpaca polyomavirus UCD1 KU879245 NC_034251 Complete genome AlPyV
Zalophus californianus polyomavirus 1 California sea lion polyomavirus 1 CSL6994 GQ331138 NC_013796 Complete genome SLPyV
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Genus: Deltapolyomavirus

Distinguishing features

This genus contains viruses, which are detected on the skin such as human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) and human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) and in the gastrointestinal tract, such as MW polyomavirus (MWPyV) and STL polyomavirus (STLPyV).


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

  1. Sufficient information on the natural host
  2. Observed genetic distance from a member of the most closely related species is >15% nucleotide difference for the LTAg coding sequence
  3. When two polyomaviruses exhibit <15% observed genetic distance (as defined above), biological properties may be of additional critical importance (e.g. host specificity, disease association, tissue tropism, etc.)

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Human polyomavirus 6 human polyomavirus 6 607a HM011560 NC_014406 Complete genome HPyV6
Human polyomavirus 7 human polyomavirus 7 713a HM011566 NC_014407 Complete genome HPyV7
Human polyomavirus 10 MW polyomavirus MA095 JQ898291 NC_018102 Complete genome MWPyV
Human polyomavirus 11 STL polyomavirus MA138 JX463183 NC_020106 Complete genome STLPyV
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Genus: Gammapolyomavirus

Distinguishing features

Members infect only birds. Some cause severe illness and even death, but oncogenicity has not been observed.


See discussion under family description.

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

  1. Sufficient information on the natural host
  2. Observed genetic distance from a member of the most closely related species is >15% nucleotide difference for the LTAg coding sequence
  3. When two polyomaviruses exhibit <15% observed genetic distance (as defined above), biological properties may be of additional critical importance (e.g. host specificity, disease association, tissue tropism, etc.)

Member species

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Anser anser polyomavirus 1 goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus Germany 2001 AY140894 NC_004800 Complete genome GHPV
Aves polyomavirus 1 budgerigar fledgling disease virus AF241168 NC_004764 Complete genome BFDV
Corvus monedula polyomavirus 1 crow polyomavirus DQ192570 NC_007922 Complete genome CpyV
Cracticus torquatus polyomavirus 1 butcherbird polyomavirus AWH19840 KF360862 NC_023008 Complete genome Butcherbird PyV
Erythrura gouldiae polyomavirus 1 Erythrura gouldiae polyomavirus 1 1209 KT302407 NC_039052 Complete genome EgouPyV1
Lonchura maja polyomavirus 1 Hungarian finch polyomavirus 14534/2011 KX756154 NC_039053 Complete genome HunFPyV
Pygoscelis adeliae polyomavirus 1 Adélie penguin polyomavirus Crozier_2012 KP033140 NC_026141 Complete genome ADPyV
Pyrrhula pyrrhula polyomavirus 1 finch polyomavirus DQ192571 NC_007923 Complete genome FpyV
Serinus canaria polyomavirus 1 canary polyomavirus Ha09 GU345044 NC_017085 Complete genome CaPyV
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Unassigned species


Strawberry mottle virus, black raspberry virus and chocolate lily virus A are related to satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) in phylogenetic trees using the conserved Pro-Pol region (Figure 4.Secoviridae). Dioscorea mosaic associated virus, recently isolated from yam, is most closely related to chocolate lily virus A (Hayashi et al., 2016). These viruses also have a bipartite genome. However, the nature of their capsid protein(s) and their genomic organization are not known. For this reason, they are unassigned species in the family Secoviridae. Strawberry latent ringspot virus was formerly considered a sadwavirus because it has two capsid proteins (CP) and some distant relation with SDV in phylogenetic trees using the Pro-Pol sequence (Figure 4.Secoviridae). However, its genomic organization is more related to that of cheraviruses (with the exception of the number of CPs, Figure 3.Secoviridae) and it branches more closely with cheraviruses than with sadwaviruses in the phylogenetic trees using the Pro-Pol sequence (Figure 4.Secoviridae). For these reasons, it is not considered a sadwavirus anymore, and is now an unassigned species in the family Secoviridae.

Unassigned species in family Secoviridae

Species Virus name(s) Exemplar isolate Exemplar accession number Exemplar RefSeq number Available sequence Other isolates Other isolate accession numbers Virus abbreviation Isolate abbreviation
Black raspberry necrosis virus black raspberry necrosis virus 1 RNA-1: DQ344639; RNA-2: DQ344640 RNA-1: NC_008182; RNA-2: NC_008183 Complete genome BRNV
Chocolate lily virus A chocolate lily virus A KP2 RNA-1: JN052073; RNA-2: JN052074 RNA-1: NC_016443; RNA-2: NC_016444 Complete coding genome CLVA
Dioscorea mosaic associated virus Dioscorea mosaic associated virus goiana RNA-1: KU215538; RNA-2: KU215539 RNA-1: NC_031766; RNA-2: NC_031763 Complete genome DMaV
Strawberry latent ringspot virus strawberry latent ringspot virus NCGR MEN 454.001 RNA-1: AY860978; RNA-2: AY860979 RNA-1: NC_006964; RNA-2: NC_006965 Complete genome SLRSV
Strawberry mottle virus strawberry mottle virus Thompson RNA-1: AJ311875; RNA-2: AJ311876 RNA-1: NC_003445; RNA-2: NC_003446 Complete genome SMoV
Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Authors: Polyomaviridae

Ugo Moens
Department of Medical Biology
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Tromsø
9037 Tromsø, Norway
Tel: +47 77644622
E-mail: ugo.moens@uit.no

Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer
Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorgansims
Robert Koch Institute
13353 Berlin, Germany
Viral Evolution
Robert Koch Institute
13353 Berlin, Germany
Tel: +49 30187542502
E-mail: calvignacs@rki.de

Chris Lauber
Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry
Technische Universität Dresden
01069 Dresden, Germany
Tel: +49 3514586055
E-mail: chris.lauber@tu-dresden.de

Torbjörn Ramqvist
Department of Oncology-pathology
Karolinska Institutet
17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: +46 8 51772763
E-mail: Torbjorn.Ramqvist@ki.se

Mariet C.W. Feltkamp
Department of Medical Microbiology
Leiden University Medical Center
2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 715264832
E-mail: M.C.W.Feltkamp@lumc.nl

Matthew D. Daugherty
Division of Biological Sciences,
University of California San Diego
La Jolla CA, 92093-0377, USA
Tel: +1 858 534-1292
E-mail: mddaugherty@ucsd.edu

Ernst J. Verschoor
Department of Virology
Biomedical Primate Research Centre
2288 GJ Rijswijk
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 152842592
E-mail: verschoor@bprc.nl

Bernhard Ehlers*
Polyomaviridae Study Group Chair
Division 12 Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Viruses Affecting Immunocompromised Patients,
Robert Koch Institute
13353 Berlin, Germany.
Tel: +49 30187542347
E-mail: ehlersb@rki.de

* to whom correspondence should be addressed

The authors are grateful to the previous Study Group (L. C. Norkin, T. Allander, W. J. Atwood, C. B. Buck, R. L. Garcea, M. J. Imperiale, R. Johne, E. O. Major, J. M. Pipas, and T. Ramqvist) for the use of their Polyomaviridae chapter of the Ninth Report of the ICTV, which was very helpful in preparing the current chapter.

Resources: Polyomaviridae

Further reading: Polyomaviridae

Buck, C. B., Van Doorslaer, K., Peretti, A., Geoghegan, E. M., Tisza, M. J., An, P., Katz, J. P., Pipas, J. M., McBride, A. A., Camus, A. C., McDermott, A. J., Dill, J. A., Delwart, E., Ng, T. F., Farkas, K., Austin, C., Kraberger, S., Davison, W., Pastrana, D. V. & Varsani, A. (2016). The ancient evolutionary history of polyomaviruses. PLoS Path 12, e1005574. [PubMed

Calvignac-Spencer, S., Feltkamp, M. C., Daugherty, M. D., Moens, U., Ramqvist, T., Johne, R. & Ehlers, B. (2016). A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae. Arch Virol 161, 1739-1750. [PubMed]

DeCaprio, J. A. & Garcea, R. L. (2013). A cornucopia of human polyomaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 11, 264-276. [PubMed]

Imperiale, M. J. & Major, E. O. (2013). Polyomaviruses. In Fields Virology, 6th edn, pp. 1633-1661. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Wolter Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Williams.

Johne, R. & Muller, H. (2007). Polyomaviruses of birds: etiologic agents of inflammatory diseases in a tumor virus family. J Virol 81, 11554-11559. [PubMed]

References: Polyomaviridae

Abend, J. R., Joseph, A. E., Das, D., Campbell-Cecen, D. B. & Imperiale, M. J. (2009). A truncated T antigen expressed from an alternatively spliced BK virus early mRNA. J Gen Virol 90, 1238-1245. [PubMed]

Bauman, Y., Nachmani, D., Vitenshtein, A., Tsukerman, P., Drayman, N., Stern-Ginossar, N., Lankry, D., Gruda, R. & Mandelboim, O. (2011). An identical miRNA of the human JC and BK polyoma viruses targets the stress-induced ligand ULBP3 to escape immune elimination. Cell Host Microbe 9, 93-102. [PubMed]

Bennett, M. D., Woolford, L., Stevens, H., Van Ranst, M., Oldfield, T., Slaven, M., O'Hara, A. J., Warren, K. S. & Nicholls, P. K. (2008). Genomic characterization of a novel virus found in papillomatous lesions from a southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus) in Western Australia. Virology 376, 173-182. [PubMed]

Berke, Z. & Dalianis, T. (1993). Persistence of polyomavirus in mice infected as adults differs from that observed in mice infected as newborns. J Virol 67, 4369-4371. [PubMed]

Berke, Z., Mellin, H., Heidari, S., Wen, T., Berglof, A., Klein, G. & Dalianis, T. (1998). Adult X-linked immunodeficiency (XID) mice, IGM-/- single knockout and IGM-/- CD8-/- double knockout mice do not clear polyomavirus infection. In Vivo 12, 143-148. [PubMed]

Berke, Z., Wen, T., Klein, G. & Dalianis, T. (1996). Polyoma tumor development in neonatally polyoma-virus-infected CD4-/- and CD8-/- single knockout and CD4-/-8-/- double knockout mice. Int J Cancer 67, 405-408. [PubMed]

Bofill-Mas, S., Rusinol, M., Fernandez-Cassi, X., Carratala, A., Hundesa, A. & Girones, R. (2013). Quantification of human and animal viruses to differentiate the origin of the fecal contamination present in environmental samples. Biomed Res Int 2013, 192089. [PubMed]

Buck, C. B., Van Doorslaer, K., Peretti, A., Geoghegan, E. M., Tisza, M. J., An, P., Katz, J. P., Pipas, J. M., McBride, A. A., Camus, A. C., McDermott, A. J., Dill, J. A., Delwart, E., Ng, T. F., Farkas, K., Austin, C., Kraberger, S., Davison, W., Pastrana, D. V. & Varsani, A. (2016). The ancient evolutionary history of polyomaviruses. PLoS Path 12, e1005574. [PubMed]

Calvignac-Spencer, S., Feltkamp, M. C., Daugherty, M. D., Moens, U., Ramqvist, T., Johne, R. & Ehlers, B. (2016). A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae. Arch Virol 161, 1739-1750. [PubMed]

Carter, J. J., Daugherty, M. D., Qi, X., Bheda-Malge, A., Wipf, G. C., Robinson, K., Roman, A., Malik, H. S. & Galloway, D. A. (2013). Identification of an overprinting gene in Merkel cell polyomavirus provides evolutionary insight into the birth of viral genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110, 12744-12749. [PubMed]

Carter, J. J., Paulson, K. G., Wipf, G. C., Miranda, D., Madeleine, M. M., Johnson, L. G., Lemos, B. D., Lee, S., Warcola, A. H., Iyer, J. G., Nghiem, P. & Galloway, D. A. (2009). Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 101, 1510-1522. [PubMed]

Chen, C. J., Cox, J. E., Azarm, K. D., Wylie, K. N., Woolard, K. D., Pesavento, P. A. & Sullivan, C. S. (2015). Identification of a polyomavirus microRNA highly expressed in tumors. Virology 476, 43-53. [PubMed]

Chen, C. J., Cox, J. E., Kincaid, R. P., Martinez, A. & Sullivan, C. S. (2013). Divergent MicroRNA targetomes of closely related circulating strains of a polyomavirus. J Virol 87, 11135-11147. [PubMed]

Church, M. E., Dela Cruz, F. N., Jr., Estrada, M., Leutenegger, C. M., Pesavento, P. A. & Woolard, K. D. (2016). Exposure to raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV) in free-ranging North American raccoons (Procyon lotor). Virology 489, 292-299. [PubMed]

Daniels, R., Sadowicz, D. & Hebert, D. N. (2007). A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of SV40. PLoS Pathog 3, e98. [PubMed]

Dawe, C. J., Freund, R., Mandel, G., Ballmer-Hofer, K., Talmage, D. A. & Benjamin, T. L. (1987). Variations in polyoma virus genotype in relation to tumor induction in mice. Characterization of wild type strains with widely differing tumor profiles. Am J Pathol 127, 243-261. [PubMed]

Deb, A., Foldenauer, U., Borjal, R. J., Streich, W. J., Luken, C., Johne, R., Muller, H. & Hammer, S. (2010). A longitudinal study on avian polyomavirus-specific antibodies in captive Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii). J Avian Med Surg 24, 192-198. [PubMed]

DeCaprio, J. A. & Garcea, R. L. (2013). A cornucopia of human polyomaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 11, 264-276. [PubMed]

Dela Cruz, F. N., Jr., Giannitti, F., Li, L., Woods, L. W., Del Valle, L., Delwart, E. & Pesavento, P. A. (2013). Novel polyomavirus associated with brain tumors in free-ranging raccoons, western United States. Emerg Infect Dis 19, 77-84. [PubMed]

Demengeot, J., Jacquemier, J., Torrente, M., Blangy, D. & Berebbi, M. (1990). Pattern of polyomavirus replication from infection until tumor formation in the organs of athymic nu/nu mice. J Virol 64, 5633-5639. [PubMed]

Dubensky, T. W., Murphy, F. A. & Villarreal, L. P. (1984). Detection of DNA and RNA virus genomes in organ systems of whole mice: patterns of mouse organ infection by polyomavirus. J Virol 50, 779-783. [PubMed]

Dykstra, M. J., Dykstra, C. C., Lukert, P. D. & Bozeman, L. H. (1984). Investigations of budgerigar fledgling disease virus. Am J Vet Res 45, 1883-1887. [PubMed]

Ehlers, B. & Moens, U. (2014). Genome analysis of non-human primate polyomaviruses. Infect, Genet Evol 26, 283-294. [PubMed]

Fang, C. Y., Lin, P. Y., Ou, W. C., Chen, P. L., Shen, C. H., Chang, D. & Wang, M. (2012). Analysis of the size of DNA packaged by the human JC virus-like particle. J Virol Methods 182, 87-92. [PubMed]

Feng, H., Shuda, M., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. S. (2008). Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319, 1096-1100. [PubMed]

Gosert, R., Kardas, P., Major, E. O. & Hirsch, H. H. (2010). Rearranged JC virus noncoding control regions found in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patient samples increase virus early gene expression and replication rate. J Virol 84, 10448-10456. [PubMed]

Gosert, R., Rinaldo, C. H., Funk, G. A., Egli, A., Ramos, E., Drachenberg, C. B. & Hirsch, H. H. (2008). Polyomavirus BK with rearranged noncoding control region emerge in vivo in renal transplant patients and increase viral replication and cytopathology. J Exp Med 205, 841-852. [PubMed]

Gossai, A., Waterboer, T., Nelson, H. H., Michel, A., Willhauck-Fleckenstein, M., Farzan, S. F., Hoen, A. G., Christensen, B. C., Kelsey, K. T., Marsit, C. J., Pawlita, M. & Karagas, M. R. (2016). Seroepidemiology of Human Polyomaviruses in a US Population. Am J Epidemiol 183, 61-69. [PubMed]

Herrera, I., Khan, S. R., Kaleta, E. F., Muller, H., Dolz, G. & Neumann, U. (2001). Serological status for Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and Pacheco disease virus in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) kept in captivity in Costa Rica. J Vet Med, Series B 48, 721-726. [PubMed]

Hurdiss, D. L., Morgan, E. L., Thompson, R. F., Prescott, E. L., Panou, M. M., Macdonald, A. & Ranson, N. A. (2016). New Structural Insights into the Genome and Minor Capsid Proteins of BK Polyomavirus using Cryo-Electron Microscopy. Structure 24, 528-536. [PubMed]

Imperiale, M. J. & Major, E. O. (2013). Polyomaviruses. In Fields Virology, 6th edn, pp. 1633-1661. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Wolter Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Williams.

Johne, R., Buck, C. B., Allander, T., Atwood, W. J., Garcea, R. L., Imperiale, M. J., Major, E. O., Ramqvist, T. & Norkin, L. C. (2011). Taxonomical developments in the family Polyomaviridae. Arch Virol 156, 1627-1634. [PubMed]

Johne, R. & Muller, H. (2007). Polyomaviruses of birds: etiologic agents of inflammatory diseases in a tumor virus family. J Virol 81, 11554-11559. [PubMed]

Kazem, S., Lauber, C., van der Meijden, E., Kooijman, S., Kravchenko, A. A., Feltkamp, M. C. & Gorbalenya, A. E. (2016). Limited variation during circulation of a polyomavirus in the human population involves the COCO-VA toggling site of Middle and Alternative T-antigen(s). Virology 487, 129-140. [PubMed]

Kazem, S., van der Meijden, E., Kooijman, S., Rosenberg, A. S., Hughey, L. C., Browning, J. C., Sadler, G., Busam, K., Pope, E., Benoit, T., Fleckman, P., de Vries, E., Eekhof, J. A. & Feltkamp, M. C. (2012). Trichodysplasia spinulosa is characterized by active polyomavirus infection. J Clin Virol 53, 225-230. [PubMed]

Kean, J. M., Rao, S., Wang, M. & Garcea, R. L. (2009). Seroepidemiology of human polyomaviruses. PLoS Pathog 5, e1000363. [PubMed]

Khan, M. S., Johne, R., Beck, I., Pawlita, M., Kaleta, E. F. & Muller, H. (2000). Development of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian polyomavirus-specific antibodies. J Virol Methods 89, 39-48. [PubMed]

Krauzewicz, N., Streuli, C. H., Stuart-Smith, N., Jones, M. D., Wallace, S. & Griffin, B. E. (1990). Myristylated polyomavirus VP2: role in the life cycle of the virus. J Virol 64, 4414-4420. [PubMed]

Krumbholz, A., Bininda-Emonds, O. R., Wutzler, P. & Zell, R. (2009). Phylogenetics, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses. Infect, Genet Evol 9, 784-799. [PubMed]

Lauber, C., Kazem, S., Kravchenko, A. A., Feltkamp, M. C. & Gorbalenya, A. E. (2015). Interspecific adaptation by binary choice at de novo polyomavirus T antigen site through accelerated codon-constrained Val-Ala toggling within an intrinsically disordered region. Nucleic Acids Res 43, 4800-4813. [PubMed]

Lednicky, J. A., Butel, J. S., Luetke, M. C. & Loeb, J. C. (2014). Complete genomic sequence of a new Human polyomavirus 9 strain with an altered noncoding control region. Virus Genes 49, 490-492. [PubMed]

Lee, S., Paulson, K. G., Murchison, E. P., Afanasiev, O. K., Alkan, C., Leonard, J. H., Byrd, D. R., Hannon, G. J. & Nghiem, P. (2011). Identification and validation of a novel mature microRNA encoded by the Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas. J Clin Virol 52, 272-275. [PubMed]

Lehn, H. & Muller, H. (1986). Cloning and characterization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus. Virology 151, 362-370. [PubMed]

Lim, E. S., Reyes, A., Antonio, M., Saha, D., Ikumapayi, U. N., Adeyemi, M., Stine, O. C., Skelton, R., Brennan, D. C., Mkakosya, R. S., Manary, M. J., Gordon, J. I. & Wang, D. (2013). Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative splicing. Virology 436, 295-303. [PubMed]

Liu, W., Yang, R., Payne, A. S., Schowalter, R. M., Spurgeon, M. E., Lambert, P. F., Xu, X., Buck, C. B. & You, J. (2016). Identifying the Target Cells and Mechanisms of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection. Cell Host Microbe 19, 775-787. [PubMed]

Madinda, N. F., Ehlers, B., Wertheim, J. O., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bergl, R. A., Boesch, C., Boji Mungu Akonkwa, D., Eckardt, W., Fruth, B., Gillespie, T. R., Gray, M., Hohmann, G., Karhemere, S., Kujirakwinja, D., Langergraber, K., Muyembe, J. J., Nishuli, R., Pauly, M., Petrzelkova, K. J., Robbins, M. M., Todd, A., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T. S., Wittig, R. M., Zuberbuhler, K., Peeters, M., Leendertz, F. H. & Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2016). Assessing host-virus co-divergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes. J Virol. [PubMed]

Mannova, P., Liebl, D., Krauzewicz, N., Fejtova, A., Stokrova, J., Palkova, Z., Griffin, B. E. & Forstova, J. (2002). Analysis of mouse polyomavirus mutants with lesions in the minor capsid proteins. J Gen Virol 83, 2309-2319. [PubMed]

Mizutani, T., Sayama, Y., Nakanishi, A., Ochiai, H., Sakai, K., Wakabayashi, K., Tanaka, N., Miura, E., Oba, M., Kurane, I., Saijo, M., Morikawa, S. & Ono, S. (2011). Novel DNA virus isolated from samples showing endothelial cell necrosis in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Virology 412, 179-187. [PubMed]

Norkiene, M., Stonyte, J., Ziogiene, D., Mazeike, E., Sasnauskas, K. & Gedvilaite, A. (2015). Production of recombinant VP1-derived virus-like particles from novel human polyomaviruses in yeast. BMC Biotechnol 15, 68. [PubMed]

O'Hara, S. D., Stehle, T. & Garcea, R. (2014). Glycan receptors of the Polyomaviridae: structure, function, and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Virol 7, 73-78. [PubMed]

Pastrana, D. V., Brennan, D. C., Cuburu, N., Storch, G. A., Viscidi, R. P., Randhawa, P. S. & Buck, C. B. (2012). Neutralization serotyping of BK polyomavirus infection in kidney transplant recipients. PLoS Pathog 8, e1002650. [PubMed]

Phalen, D. N., Radabaugh, C. S., Dahlhausen, R. D. & Styles, D. K. (2000). Viremia, virus shedding, and antibody response during natural avian polyomavirus infection in parrots. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217, 32-36. [PubMed]

Phalen, D. N., Wilson, V. G. & Graham, D. L. (1993). Organ distribution of avian polyomavirus DNA and virus-neutralizing antibody titers in healthy adult budgerigars. Am J Vet Res 54, 2040-2047. [PubMed]

Qi, F., Carbone, M., Yang, H. & Gaudino, G. (2011). Simian virus 40 transformation, malignant mesothelioma and brain tumors. Expert Rev Respir Med 5, 683-697. [PubMed]

Raidal, S. R., Cross, G. M., Tomaszewski, E., Graham, D. L. & Phalen, D. N. (1998). A serologic survey for avian polyomavirus and Pacheco's disease virus in Australian cockatoos. Avian Pathol 27, 263-268. [PubMed]

Sahli, R., Freund, R., Dubensky, T., Garcea, R., Bronson, R. & Benjamin, T. (1993). Defect in entry and altered pathogenicity of a polyoma virus mutant blocked in VP2 myristylation. Virology 192, 142-153. [PubMed]

Saribas, A. S., Coric, P., Hamazaspyan, A., Davis, W., Axman, R., White, M. K., Abou-Gharbia, M., Childers, W., Condra, J. H., Bouaziz, S. & Safak, M. (2016). Emerging From the Unknown: Structural and Functional Features of Agnoprotein of Polyomaviruses. J Cell Physiol 231, 2115-2127. [PubMed]

Schowalter, R. M., Pastrana, D. V., Pumphrey, K. A., Moyer, A. L. & Buck, C. B. (2010). Merkel cell polyomavirus and two previously unknown polyomaviruses are chronically shed from human skin. Cell Host Microbe 7, 509-515. [PubMed]

Scuda, N., Madinda, N. F., Akoua-Koffi, C., Adjogoua, E. V., Wevers, D., Hofmann, J., Cameron, K. N., Leendertz, S. A., Couacy-Hymann, E., Robbins, M., Boesch, C., Jarvis, M. A., Moens, U., Mugisha, L., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Leendertz, F. H. & Ehlers, B. (2013). Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population. PLoS Pathog 9, e1003429. [PubMed]

Shen, P. S., Enderlein, D., Nelson, C. D., Carter, W. S., Kawano, M., Xing, L., Swenson, R. D., Olson, N. H., Baker, T. S., Cheng, R. H., Atwood, W. J., Johne, R. & Belnap, D. M. (2011). The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, non-conserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4. Virology 411, 142-152. [PubMed]

Song, X., Van Ghelue, M., Ludvigsen, M., Nordbo, S. A., Ehlers, B. & Moens, U. (2016). Characterization of the non-coding control region of polyomavirus KI isolated from nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and from blood from healthy blood donors in Norway. J Gen Virol 97, 1647-1657. [PubMed]

Stehle, T., Gamblin, S. J., Yan, Y. & Harrison, S. C. (1996). The structure of simian virus 40 refined at 3.1 Å resolution. Structure 4, 165-182. [PubMed]

Stehle, T. & Harrison, S. C. (1996). Crystal structures of murine polyomavirus in complex with straight-chain and branched-chain sialyloligosaccharide receptor fragments. Structure 4, 183-194. [PubMed]

Streuli, C. H. & Griffin, B. E. (1987). Myristic acid is coupled to a structural protein of polyoma virus and SV40. Nature 326, 619-622. [PubMed]

Stroh, L. J., Gee, G. V., Blaum, B. S., Dugan, A. S., Feltkamp, M. C., Atwood, W. J. & Stehle, T. (2015). Trichodysplasia spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Uses a Displaced Binding Site on VP1 to Engage Sialylated Glycolipids. PLoS Pathog 11, e1005112. [PubMed]

Stroh, L. J., Neu, U., Blaum, B. S., Buch, M. H., Garcea, R. L. & Stehle, T. (2014). Structure analysis of the major capsid proteins of human polyomaviruses 6 and 7 reveals an obstructed sialic acid binding site. J Virol 88, 10831-10839. [PubMed]

Sullivan, C. S., Sung, C. K., Pack, C. D., Grundhoff, A., Lukacher, A. E., Benjamin, T. L. & Ganem, D. (2009). Murine Polyomavirus encodes a microRNA that cleaves early RNA transcripts but is not essential for experimental infection. Virology 387, 157-167. [PubMed]

Tao, Y., Shi, M., Conrardy, C., Kuzmin, I. V., Recuenco, S., Agwanda, B., Alvarez, D. A., Ellison, J. A., Gilbert, A. T., Moran, D., Niezgoda, M., Lindblade, K. A., Holmes, E. C., Breiman, R. F., Rupprecht, C. E. & Tong, S. (2013). Discovery of diverse polyomaviruses in bats and the evolutionary history of the Polyomaviridae. J Gen Virol 94, 738-748. [PubMed]

Toptan, T., Yousem, S. A., Ho, J., Matsushima, Y., Stabile, L. P., Fernandez-Figueras, M. T., Bhargava, R., Ryo, A., Moore, P. S. & Chang, Y. (2016). Survey for human polyomaviruses in cancer. JCI Insight 1 (2). [PubMed]

van der Meijden, E., Janssens, R. W., Lauber, C., Bouwes Bavinck, J. N., Gorbalenya, A. E. & Feltkamp, M. C. (2010). Discovery of a new human polyomavirus associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa in an immunocompromized patient. PLoS Pathog 6, e1001024. [PubMed]

van der Meijden, E., Kazem, S., Dargel, C. A., van Vuren, N., Hensbergen, P. J. & Feltkamp, M. C. (2015). Characterization of T Antigens, Including Middle T and Alternative T, Expressed by the Human Polyomavirus Associated with Trichodysplasia Spinulosa. J Virol 89, 9427-9439. [PubMed]

Verschoor, E. J., Niphuis, H., Fagrouch, Z., Christian, P., Sasnauskas, K., Pizarro, M. C. & Heeney, J. L. (2008). Seroprevalence of SV40-like polyomavirus infections in captive and free-ranging macaque species. J Med Primatol 37, 196-201. [PubMed]

Wainright, P. O., Lukert, P. D., Davis, R. B. & Villegas, P. (1987). Serological evaluation of some psittaciformes for budgerigar fledgling disease virus. Avian Dis 31, 673-676. [PubMed]

Wiley, S. R., Kraus, R. J., Zuo, F., Murray, E. E., Loritz, K. & Mertz, J. E. (1993). SV40 early-to-late switch involves titration of cellular transcriptional repressors. Genes Dev 7, 2206-2219. [PubMed]

Woolford, L., O'Hara, A. J., Bennett, M. D., Slaven, M., Swan, R., Friend, J. A., Ducki, A., Sims, C., Hill, S., Nicholls, P. K. & Warren, K. S. (2008). Cutaneous papillomatosis and carcinomatosis in the Western barred bandicoot (Perameles bougainville). Vet Pathol 45, 95-103. [PubMed]

Zielonka, A., Gedvilaite, A., Ulrich, R., Luschow, D., Sasnauskas, K., Muller, H. & Johne, R. (2006). Generation of virus-like particles consisting of the major capsid protein VP1 of goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus and their application in serological tests. Virus Res 120, 128-137. [PubMed]

Zielonka, A., Verschoor, E. J., Gedvilaite, A., Roesler, U., Muller, H. & Johne, R. (2011). Detection of chimpanzee polyomavirus-specific antibodies in captive and wild-caught chimpanzees using yeast-expressed virus-like particles. Virus Res 155, 514-519. [PubMed]

Citation: Polyomaviridae

A summary of this ICTV Report chapter has been published as an ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile article in the Journal of General Virology, and should be cited when referencing this online chapter as follows:

Moens, U., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Lauber, C., Ramqvist, T., Feltkamp, M.C.W., Daugherty, M.D., Verschoor, E.J., Ehlers, B., and ICTV Report Consortium, 2017, ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: PolyomaviridaeJournal of General Virology, 98: 11591160