Genus: Xipapillomavirus

Genus: Xipapillomavirus

Distinguishing features

Infections by members of this genus cause true papillomas on the cutaneous or mucosal surfaces of ungulates. Most members of this genus do not encode an E6 protein. All viruses in this genus express an E10 protein from part of the genome typically occupied by E6. The E10 protein displays transforming properties.


See discussion under family description

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

Putative novel papillomavirus genome with complete genome sequence data available and that is <70% related to papillomaviruses within the genus (Figure 1.Xipapillomavirus).

Figure 1.Xipapillomavirus. Phylogenetic tree of members of the genus Xipapillomavirus. The E1, E2, L2, and L1 nucleotide sequences of 343 papillomavirus isolates including representatives of all species and genera within the Papillomaviridae family were aligned as amino acid sequences using MUSCLE v7.221 (Edgar 2004). JModeltest2 (Darriba et al., 2012) was used to determine the optimal model of evolution (GTR + I + G) for the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed using RAxML MPI v8.2.9 (Stamatakis 2006) implementing the GTR substitution model. ML bootstrap analysis used the autoMRE-based stopping criterion in RAxML. Following tree construction (tree available in the Resources section of the Papillomaviridae Report), the subtree corresponding to the genus Xipapillomavirus was isolated. Tips are labelled with virus names and accession numbers; nodes are labelled with bootstrap support values.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 3AF486184NC_004197Complete genomeBPV3
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 9AB331650Complete genomeBPV9
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 10AB331651Complete genomeBPV10
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 11AB543507Complete genomeBPV11
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 6AJ620208Complete genomeBPV6
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 15Aks-02KM983393Complete genomeBPV15
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 2304Ac14KX098515Complete genomeBPV23
Xipapillomavirus 1Bos taurus papillomavirus 4X05817Complete genomeBPV4
Xipapillomavirus 2Bos taurus papillomavirus 12PR000001JF834523NC_028126Complete genomeBPV12
Xipapillomavirus 3Rangifer tarandus papillomavirus 2KC810012NC_021930Complete genomeRtPV2
Xipapillomavirus 4Bos taurus papillomavirus 17KU519392NC_030797Complete genomeBPV17
Xipapillomavirus 5Cervus elaphus papillomavirus 2S129/08.1KT932712NC_039042Complete genomeCePV2

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.