Genus: Betapapillomavirus

Genus: Betapapillomavirus

Distinguishing features

Members of this genus typically cause latent infections. However, in patients with specific (immune) disorders, members of this genus can cause warts or progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Patients suffering from the rare disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) are at a higher risk of developing SCC, and certain members of the genus Betapapillomavirus have been implicated (Arnold and Hofbauer 2012). Recent evidence suggests that, in the general population, certain betapapillomavirus types may be a co-factor in the development of SCC. Remarkably, these betapapillomavirus types are not detected in most SSC, suggesting that viral proteins may not be required to maintain the malignant SCC lesions. Members of the genus Betapapillomavirus are also the most common human papillomavirus (HPV) types found in the human oral cavity and some have been prospectively associated with oropharyngeal cancer development (Agalliu et al., 2016).


See discussion under family description

Genome organization and replication

See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.


See discussion under family description.

Species demarcation criteria

Putative novel papillomavirus genome with complete genome sequence data available and that is <70% related to papillomaviruses within the genus (Figure 1.Betapapillomavirus). 

Figure 1.Betapapillomavirus. Phylogenetic tree of members of the genus Betapapillomavirus. The E1, E2, L2, and L1 nucleotide sequences of 343 papillomavirus isolates including representatives of all species and genera within the Papillomaviridae family were aligned as amino acid sequences using MUSCLE v7.221 (Edgar 2004). JModeltest2 (Darriba et al., 2012) was used to determine the optimal model of evolution (GTR + I + G) for the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed using RAxML MPI v8.2.9 (Stamatakis 2006) implementing the GTR substitution model. ML bootstrap analysis used the autoMRE-based stopping criterion in RAxML. Following tree construction (tree available in the Resources section of the Papillomaviridae Report), the subtree corresponding to the genus Betapapillomavirus was isolated. Tips are labelled with virus names and accession numbers; nodes are labelled with bootstrap support values.

Member species

SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviation
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 5M17463NC_001531Complete genomeHPV5
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 93AY382778HPV93
Betapapillomavirus 1Macaca fascicularis papillomavirus 1EF028290MfPV1
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 98GA1-3FM955837HPV98
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 99GA3-1FM955838HPV99
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 105DL294FM955841HPV105
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 118b_wart3GQ246951HPV118
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 124NJ3900GQ845446HPV124
Betapapillomavirus 1Colobus guereza papillomavirus 2GU014533CgPV2
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 143CL3220HM999995HPV143
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 152Muc17.1JF304768HPV152
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 8M12737HPV8
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 47M32305HPV47
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 20U31778HPV20
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 21U31779HPV21
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 24U31782HPV24
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 36U31785HPV36
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 12X74466HPV12
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 14X74467HPV14
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 19X74470HPV19
Betapapillomavirus 1human papillomavirus 25X74471HPV25
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 9X74464NC_001596Complete genomeHPV9
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 107FA85EF422221HPV107
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 110EU410348HPV110
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 111EU410349HPV111
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 100DL267FM955839HPV100
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 104DL253FM955840HPV104
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 113DL250FM955842HPV113
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 151SIBX2FN677756HPV151
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 120CL3857GQ845442HPV120
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 122CL3802GQ845444HPV122
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 159SIBX8HE963025HPV159
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 174V001HF930491HPV174
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 145CL4112HM999997HPV145
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 22U31780HPV22
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 23U31781HPV23
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 37U31786HPV37
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 38U31787HPV38
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 15X74468HPV15
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 17X74469HPV17
Betapapillomavirus 2human papillomavirus 80Y15176HPV80
Betapapillomavirus 3human papillomavirus 49X74480NC_001591Complete genomeHPV49
Betapapillomavirus 3human papillomavirus 115GC02FJ947080HPV115
Betapapillomavirus 3human papillomavirus 75Y15173HPV75
Betapapillomavirus 3human papillomavirus 76Y15174HPV76
Betapapillomavirus 4human papillomavirus 92AF531420NC_004500Complete genomeHPV92
Betapapillomavirus 5human papillomavirus 96AY382779NC_005134Complete genomeHPV96
Betapapillomavirus 5human papillomavirus 150SIBX1FN677755HPV150
Betapapillomavirus 6Macaca fascicularis papillomavirus 2Mac191GU014531NC_015691Complete genomeMfPV2

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

human papillomavirus mEV03c09



human papillomavirus mHIVGc36



human papillomavirus mMTS1



human papillomavirus mRTRX7



human papillomavirus mTVMBSFc09



human papillomavirus mTVMBSGc2024



human papillomavirus mm090c09



human papillomavirus mm292c10



human papillomavirus mm292c100



human papillomavirus mm292c14



human papillomavirus mm292c88



human papillomavirus mw15c111



Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.