Genus: Chloriridovirus


Genus: Chloriridovirus

Distinguishing features

Historically, the larger virion size (180 nm compared to 120–130 nm) and the yellow-green iridescence of patently-infected larvae and purified viral pellets were used to distinguish chloriridoviruses from iridoviruses. Chloriridoviruses were originally thought to only infect mosquito species, however recent phylogenetic studies suggest they may have a broader host range.

Virion

Morphology

Particle diameter is up to 180 nm in ultrathin section. The trimers and pentamers of invertebrate iridescent virus 3 (IIV3) are larger than the corresponding structures of members of the genus Iridovirus, with probably 14 capsomers to each edge of the trimer. Particle size has historically been used to define viruses that are members of this genus, but the validity of that characteristic is uncertain. A fringe of hair-like fibrils surrounds virus particles (Figure 2B.Iridoviridae).

Physicochemical and physical properties

IIV3 has a Mol Wt of approximately 2.49-2.75 ×109, a buoyant density of approximately 1.354 g cm−3 in CsCl, and a sedimentation coefficient of 4440–4460S.

Nucleic acid

The genome of IIV3 is 191,132 bp with a G+C content of 48%. Of the 126 predicted genes, 68 are common between invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6, genus Iridovirus) and IIV3. Thirty-three IIV3 genes lack homologs in other iridovirids. There is little conservation of gene order among IIV3, IIV6, and invertebrate iridescent virus 9 (IIV9), e.g., between IIV3 and IIV9 only five clusters of three or more genes were detected (Wong et al., 2011).

Proteins

Proteomic analysis of IIV9, an unclassified virus in the genus, suggests that up to 64 viral proteins are present within the virion. Putative genes found in IIV3 and IIV6 but not present in vertebrate iridovirids, include a DNA topoisomerase II, an NAD-dependent DNA ligase, SF1 helicase, IAP and a BRO protein. The genome of the type species, IIV3, is 191 kbp and encodes a minimum of 126 ORFs. Other unclassified viruses in the genus have 148–191 ORFs.

Genome organization and replication

Only very limited colinearity has been observed between IIV3 and the genome of any other IIVs sequenced to date. The genes of IIV3, like those of other members of the family, do not appear to be grouped by temporal class. Moreover, they lack introns, are closely-spaced, and are not present on overlapping strands of the viral genome. Because suitable in vitro replication systems are lacking, little is known about the viral replication strategy. However, as with other members of the family, overall replication strategy is thought to be similar to that of frog virus 3.

Antigenicity 

IIV3 is serologically distinct from members of other genera.

Biology

Chloriridovirus-like infections were reported from Diptera with aquatic larval stages, mainly mosquitoes. There is evidence for transovarial transmission in mosquitoes infected by IIV3. Horizontal transmission is achieved by cannibalism or predation of infected mosquitoes. Patently infected larvae and purified pellets of virus display yellow-green iridescence although orange and red infections are known. IIV3 appears to have a narrow host range.

Species demarcation criteria

Members of the genus show 50% or greater sequence identity within the major capsid protein gene. Criteria to distinguish species within the genus are under development. Isolates displaying 90% or greater nucleotide identity within the major capsid protein gene, or within a set of core genes, would likely be considered as members of the same viral species.

Member species

SpeciesVirus name(s)Exemplar isolateExemplar accession numberExemplar RefSeq numberAvailable sequenceOther isolatesOther isolate accession numbersVirus abbreviationIsolate abbreviation
Invertebrate iridescent virus 3invertebrate iridescent virus 3; mosquito iridescent virusFloridaDQ643392NC_008187Complete genomeIIV3; MIV

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates, and virus abbreviations, are not official ICTV designations.

Derivation of names

Invertebrate iridescent viruses (i.e., IIVs) were designated in the order in which they were identified. However, some were designated based on the host species from which they were isolated, e.g., Anopheles minimus iridovirus.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

Genome (bp)

ORFs

%GC

invertebrate iridescent virus 9

GQ918152

IIV9

206,791

191

31

invertebrate iridescent virus 22

HF920633

IIV22

197,693

167

29

invertebrate iridescent virus 22A

HF920634

IIV22A

196,455

174

28

invertebrate iridescent virus 25

HF920635

IIV25

204,815

177

30

invertebrate iridescent virus 30

HF920636

IIV30

198,533

177

28

Anopheles minimus iridiovirus

KF938901

AMIV

163,023

148

ND

Virus names and abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
ND: not determined.

These isolates are regarded as unclassified viruses most closely related to viruses in the genus Chloriridovirus. This conclusion is based on phylogenetic analyses that indicate that they are more closely-related to IIV3 than to IIV6 (Figure 6.Iridoviridae).