Genus: Mastadenovirus

Genus: Mastadenovirus

Distinguishing features

Mastadenoviruses infect mammals only, and have been distinguished traditionally from members of other adenovirus genera by serology (since genus members share complement-fixing antigen). Only mastadenoviruses have proteins IX and V.

Virion

Morphology

See discussion under family properties. The 3D structures of the virions of human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5, species Human mastadenovirus C) and human adenovirus 26 (HAdV-26, species Human mastadenovirus D) have been determined (Liu et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2017), as well as those of the fibers of different viruses from the genus including animal mastadenoviruses like porcine adenovirus 4 and murine adenovirus 2 (van Raaij et al., 1999, Guardado-Calvo et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2018).

Physicochemical and physical properties

Virus infectivity is inactivated after heating at 56°C for more than 10 min.

Nucleic acid

Mastadenovirus genomes fully sequenced to date range between 27,952 (polar bear adenovirus 1) and 37,860 bp (simian adenovirus 31.2 from chimpanzee, species Human mastadenovirus C) (Roy et al., 2009, Böszörményi et al., 2020). Nucleotide composition varies between 34.20 (bat adenovirus 10 strain WIV18) (Tan et al., 2017) and 63.84% G+C (porcine adenovirus 3). The inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of mastadenoviruses are in general longer, at 35–368 bp (bat adenovirus 4 strain WIV9 and bovine adenovirus 10) (Dán et al., 2001, Tan et al., 2016), and more complex (containing a variety of cellular factor-binding sites) than in members of other genera. The genome of human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2) is 35,937 bp with a nucleotide composition of 55.20% G+C, and the ITR is 103 bp. Nucleic acid detection (mainly by PCR) has essentially replaced serology as the preferred diagnostic method (Echavarria et al., 2001).

Proteins

The unique structural proteins of mastadenoviruses are proteins V and IX. Protein IX is responsible for cementing the hexons on the outer surface of the capsid. Interestingly, polar bear adenovirus 1 lacks protein IX (Dayaram et al., 2018, Böszörményi et al., 2020).

Lipids

None reported.

Carbohydrates

HAdV-2 and HAdV-5 fibers contain O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, which has not been found in the fiber of human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) (Mullis et al., 1990).

Genome organization and replication

Genome organization, replication and splicing have been most extensively studied for isolates of the species Human mastadenovirus C (Figure 3.Adenoviridae) (Davison et al., 2003b, Zhao et al., 2014), and the findings seem to be generally applicable to all mastadenoviruses, except in the E3 and E4 regions (Hemmi et al., 2011, Cortés-Hinojosa et al., 2015, Podgorski et al., 2016, Abendroth et al., 2017, Ridpath et al., 2017).

The E3 region is most complex in the primate mastadenoviruses and contains up to eight genes (e.g. the chimpanzee adenovirus types of species Human mastadenovirus E, such as simian adenovirus 25 [SAdV-25]). This early region is also different in the non-primate mastadenoviruses, e.g. in the bat mastadenoviruses (Ogawa et al., 2017, Jansen van Vuren et al., 2018, Kobayashi et al., 2019). The E3 region is also considerably shorter and less complex in the non-primate mastadenoviruses. The simplest E3 region, comprising a single gene, occurs in murine adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1) and murine adenovirus 3 (MAdV-3). In the E4 region, a single homologue of the HAdV-2 34K protein exists in almost all mastadenoviruses but is duplicated in bovine adenovirus 3 and porcine adenovirus 5 (Ahi et al., 2017).

The genes coding protein IX and V occur only in mastadenoviruses. Protein IX, as well as cementing the hexons on the outer surface of the capsid, also acts as a transcriptional activator, takes part in nuclear re-organization, and is involved in the final stages of virus entry (Strunze et al., 2011). However, the protein IX gene is missing from polar bear adenovirus 1, as identified in deceased polar bears in two independent cases in Berlin and Budapest (Dayaram et al., 2018, Böszörményi et al., 2020). Protein V is not only a core protein but, in association with cellular protein p32, is involved in transport of viral DNA into the nucleus of the infected cell.

Although the fiber knobs of most mastadenoviruses bind to coxsackievirus and AdV receptor (CAR), CD46, desmoglein-2 or sialic acid (Marttila et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2011), porcine adenovirus 4 fiber has an additional C-terminal galectin domain connected to the head by an RGD-containing sequence, and binds carbohydrates containing lactose and N-acetyl-lactosamine units (Guardado-Calvo et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2020).

Human adenovirus 52 (HAdV-52, species Human mastadenovirus G) is one of only three known human mastadenoviruses (the other two are human adenovirus 40 [HAdV-40] and human adenovirus 41 [HAdV-41], both species Human mastadenovirus F) that are equipped with both a long and a short fiber (Jones et al., 2007), whereas there is an entire lineage of monkey mastadenoviruses that have this feature (Podgorski et al., 2016). The long fiber of HAdV-52 binds to CAR, and the short fiber knob can use polysialic acid as a receptor on target cells, indicating a dual tropism (Lenman et al., 2018). Similarly, the long fiber of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 is also CAR-binding, but the short fiber uses heparin sulphate as the cellular receptor (Rajan et al., 2021).

Biology

See discussion under family properties. Recently, a novel adenovirus was described associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis in a captive reindeer (Dastjerdi et al., 2021).

Antigenicity

Genus members share complement-fixing antigen. Besides the hexon, the penton base has been identified as a second immunodominant target in human mastadenoviruses (Tischer et al., 2016). See further discussion under family properties.

Species demarcation criteria

Species demarcation is based on evolutionary distance as reflected by the calculated phylogenetic distances and genome organizational differences. Several species contain multiple similar types (designated by Arabic numbers) that were traditionally distinguished serologically (by virus neutralization). The serological type demarcation criterion is currently being replaced by genomic criteria. Species designation depends on at least two of the following characteristics:

  • Phylogenetic distance (>10–15%, based on distance matrix analysis of the DNA polymerase amino acid sequence)
  • Genome organization (characteristically in the E3 region)
  • Nucleotide composition
  • Host range
  • Oncogenicity in rodents
  • Cross-neutralization
  • Ability to recombine
  • Number of VA RNA genes
  • Hemagglutination

For example, if virus neutralization data are available, lack of cross-neutralization combined with a phylogenetic distance of >15% separates two types into different species. If the phylogenetic distance is between 10 and 15%, any additional common grouping criteria from the list above may classify separate types into the same species even if they were isolated from different hosts. As an example, the most numerous types from the same host, the human mastadenoviruses, can be clearly separated into seven species supported by phylogenetic analysis, their ability to recombine (e.g. between human adenovirus 1, HAdV-2, HAdV-5 and human adenovirus 6), growth characteristics (e.g. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 show similar restricted capacity), oncogenicity and nucleotide composition (e.g. human adenovirus 12, human adenovirus 18 and human adenovirus 31, which are members of the species Human mastadenovirus A, share high oncogenicity in rodents and low % G+C content). Mastadenoviruses of species Human mastadenovirus D have only been isolated from humans, whereas Human mastadenovirus A also includes isolates from chimpanzee, Human mastadenovirus B includes isolates from chimpanzee and gorilla, Human mastadenovirus C includes isolates from bonobo, chimpanzee and gorilla. Human mastadenovirus E includes isolates from bonobo and chimpanzee, and Human mastadenovirus F includes isolates from chimpanzee, gorilla and moustached monkey (Lange et al., 2019). Human mastadenovirus G includes many Old World monkey isolates (but not a single ape isolate) and a single human serotype, human adenovirus 52 (for further details on hosts see: https://sites.google.com/site/adenoseq/). Ape mastadenoviruses are classified into species otherwise including only human isolates because they are adequately similar to certain human mastadenoviruses according to species demarcation criteria (Roy et al., 2009). These lineages originated in apes and switched host to humans, in which they were first discovered (Hoppe et al., 2015).

Thus far, >100 human adenovirus genotypes have been proposed from whole genome sequencing data, including homologous recombinants with unique combinations of earlier identified versions of penton base, hexon and fiber genes. Clearly, the situation is nuanced, and the precise rules and type demarcation criteria for genotypes are still under discussion.

Member species

Exemplar isolate of the species
SpeciesVirus nameIsolateAccession numberRefSeq numberAvailable sequenceVirus Abbrev.
Bat mastadenovirus Abat adenovirus 3TJMGU226970NC_016895Complete genomeBaAdV-3
Bat mastadenovirus Abat adenovirus Mm32Mm32LC385828Complete genomeBaAdV-Mm32
Bat mastadenovirus Bbat adenovirus 2PPV1JN252129NC_015932Complete genomeBaAdV-2
Bat mastadenovirus Cbat adenovirus 4WIV9KT698853NC_029898Complete genomeBaAdV-4
Bat mastadenovirus Dbat adenovirus 7WIV12KT698856NC_030860Complete genomeBaAdV-7
Bat mastadenovirus Ebat adenovirus 8WIV13KT698852NC_030874Complete genomeBaAdV-8
Bat mastadenovirus Fbat adenovirus 9WIV17KX961095NC_034626Complete genomeBaAdV-9
Bat mastadenovirus Fbat adenovirus 10WIV18KX961096Complete genomeBaAdV-10
Bat mastadenovirus Gbat adenovirus 11250-AKX871230NC_031948Complete genomeBaAdV-11
Bat mastadenovirus Hstraw-colored fruit bat adenovirus06-106AP018374Complete genome
Bat mastadenovirus IEgyptian fruit bat adenovirus3085MG551742Complete genome
Bat mastadenovirus Jbat adenovirus Vs9Vs9LC385827Complete genome
Bovine mastadenovirus Abovine adenovirus 1BD269513AC_000191Complete genomeBAdV-1
Bovine mastadenovirus Bbovine adenovirus 3WBR-1AF030154AC_000002Complete genomeBAdV-3
Bovine mastadenovirus Cbovine adenovirus 10Ma268JF699138Partial genomeBAdV-10
Canine mastadenovirus Acanine adenovirus 1RI261Y07760AC_000003Complete genomeCAdV-1
Canine mastadenovirus Acanine adenovirus 2Toronto A26/61U77082Complete genomeCAdV-2
Canine mastadenovirus Avespertillonid adenovirus 4492/08KM043107Partial genomeVeAdV-4
Deer mastadenovirus Bdeer adenovirus 2; Odocolleus adenovirus 21319KY306667NC_034834Complete genomeOdAdV-2
Dolphin mastadenovirus Abottlenose dolphin adenovirus 2Tt11018KR024710NC_038333Complete coding genomeBnDAdV-2
Dolphin mastadenovirus Bbottlenose dolphin adenovirus 11-2014LT841149NC_044960Complete genomeBnDAdV-1
Equine mastadenovirus Aequine adenovirus 1M1JN418926NC_030792Complete genomeEAdV-1
Equine mastadenovirus Bequine adenovirus 2EAdV2.385/75.9KT160425NC_027705Complete genomeEAdV-2
Guinea pig mastadenovirus AGuinea pig adenovirus 1AUS96MN986925Complete genomeGPAdV-1
Human mastadenovirus Ahuman adenovirus 12X73487NC_001460Complete genomeHAdV-12
Human mastadenovirus Ahuman adenovirus 18D.C.GU191019Complete genomeHAdV-18
Human mastadenovirus Ahuman adenovirus 31AM749299Complete genomeHAdV-31
Human mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus ch1SAdV-ch1KF360047Complete genomeSAdV-ch1
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 3DQ086466NC_011203Complete genomeHAdV-3
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 7vaccineAY495969Complete genomeHAdV-7
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 11Ad11p SlobitskiAY163756Complete genomeHAdV-11
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 14de WitAY803294Complete genomeHAdV-14
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 16ch. 79AY601636Complete genomeHAdV-16
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 21AV-1645AY601633Complete genomeHAdV-21
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 34ComptonAY737797Complete genomeHAdV-34
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 35HoldenAY128640Complete genomeHAdV-35
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 50WanAY737798Complete genomeHAdV-50
Human mastadenovirus Bhuman adenovirus 55QS-DLLFJ643676Complete genomeHAdV-55
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 21AR101858Complete genomeSAdV-21
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 27 (chimpanzee)HC084988Complete genomeSAdV-27.1ch
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 28 (gorilla)FJ025915Complete genomeSAdV-28.2go
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 29HC085020Complete genomeSAdV-29
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 32HC085052Complete genomeSAdV-32
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 33HC085083Complete genomeSAdV-33
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 35 (bonobo)FJ025910Complete genomeSAdV-35.2bo
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 41HI964271Complete genomeSAdV-41
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 46FJ025930Complete genomeSAdV-46
Human mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 47FJ025929Complete genomeSAdV-47
Human mastadenovirus Chuman adenovirus 2J01917NC_001405Complete genomeHAdV-2
Human mastadenovirus Chuman adenovirus 1AF534906Complete genomeHAdV-1
Human mastadenovirus Chuman adenovirus 5M73260Complete genomeHAdV-5
Human mastadenovirus Chuman adenovirus 6Tonsil 99 prototypeFJ349096Complete genomeHAdV-6
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 31HC000816Complete genomeSAdV-31
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 34HC000847Complete genomeSAdV-34
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 40HC000785Complete genomeSAdV-40
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 42HC191035Complete genomeSAdV-42
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 43FJ025900Complete genomeSAdV-43
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 44FJ025899Complete genomeSAdV-44
Human mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 45FJ025901Complete genomeSAdV-45
Human mastadenovirus Cchimpanzee adenovirus ChAd3ChAd3CS138463Complete genomeChimp ChAd3
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 9Hicks NIAID V-209-003-014 ATCC VR-1086AJ854486NC_010956Complete genomeHAdV-9
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 8TrimAB448767Complete genomeHAdV-8
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 10JN226746Complete genomeHAdV-10
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 13JN226747Complete genomeHAdV-13
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 15CH38AB562586Complete genomeHAdV-15
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 17AF108105Complete genomeHAdV-17
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 19JQ326209Complete genomeHAdV-19p
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 20JN226749Complete genomeHAdV-20
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 22AV-2711FJ404771Complete genomeHAdV-22
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 23JN226750Complete genomeHAdV-23
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 24JN226751Complete genomeHAdV-24
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 25JN226752Complete genomeHAdV-25
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 26EF153474Complete genomeHAdV-26
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 27JN226753Complete genomeHAdV-27
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 28BP-5FJ824826Complete genomeHAdV-28
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 29JN226754Complete genomeHAdV-29
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 30USA/BP-7-1/1959/30JN226755Complete genomeHAdV-30
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 32JN226756Complete genomeHAdV-32
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 33JN226758Complete genomeHAdV-33
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 36GQ384080Complete genomeHAdV-36
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 37GW [76-19026]DQ900900Complete genomeHAdV-37
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 38JN226759Complete genomeHAdV-38
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 39JN226760Complete genomeHAdV-39
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 42JN226761Complete genomeHAdV-42
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 43JN226762Complete genomeHAdV-43
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 44JN226763Complete genomeHAdV-44
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 45JN226764Complete genomeHAdV-45
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 46AY875648Complete genomeHAdV-46
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 47JN226757Complete genomeHAdV-47
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 48EF153473Complete genomeHAdV-48
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 49DQ393829Complete genomeHAdV-49
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 51JN226765Complete genomeHAdV-51
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 53FJ169625Complete genomeHAdV-53
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 54Kobe-HAB333801Complete genomeHAdV-54
Human mastadenovirus Dhuman adenovirus 56HM770721Complete genomeHAdV-56
Human mastadenovirus Ehuman adenovirus 4CL 68578AY487947NC_003266Complete genomeHAdV-4
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 22ATCC VR-591AY530876Complete genomeSAdV-22
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 23ATCC VR-592AY530877Complete genomeSAdV-23
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 24ATCC VR-593AY530878Complete genomeSAdV-24
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 25AR101859 AF394196Complete genomeSAdV-25
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 26HB426768Complete genomeSAdV-26
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 30FJ025920Complete genomeSAdV-30
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 36HC191003Complete genomeSAdV-36
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 37 (bonobo)FJ025919Complete genomeSAdV-37.2bo
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 38HB426671Complete genomeSAdV-38
Human mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 39HB426607Complete genomeSAdV-39
Human mastadenovirus Echimpanzee adenovirus ChAd6ChAd6CS138464Complete genomechimp ChAd6
Human mastadenovirus Echimpanzee adenovirus Y25Y25JN254802Complete genomechimp Y25
Human mastadenovirus Fhuman adenovirus 40DuganL19443NC_001454Complete genomeHAdV-40
Human mastadenovirus Fhuman adenovirus 41TakDQ315364Complete genomeHAdV-41
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 1ATCC VR-195AY771780NC_006879Complete genomeSAdV-1
Human mastadenovirus Ghuman adenovirus 52T03-2244DQ923122Complete genomeHAdV-52
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 2SV11MG969551Complete genomeSAdV-2
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 7ATCC VR-201 8045-2WNDQ792570Complete genomeSAdV-7
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 11P-10KP329562Complete genomeSAdV-11
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 12A-7644KP853123Partial genomeSAdV-12
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 1572707 ATCC VR-355KP853109Partial genomeSAdV-15
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 51KM591901Complete genomeSAdV-51
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 52KM591902Complete genomeSAdV-52
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 53KM591903Complete genomeSAdV-53
Human mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 58MF198452Complete genomeSAdV-58
Murine mastadenovirus Amurine adenovirus 1M22245;
X53012;
U57336;
U95843;
X74742;
M81889;
M81056;
U23770;
M30594;
M37187
All
AC_000012Complete genomeMAdV-1
Murine mastadenovirus Bmurine adenovirus 2K87HM049560NC_014899Complete genomeMAdV-2
Murine mastadenovirus Cmurine adenovirus 3EU835513NC_012584Complete genomeMAdV-3
Ovine mastadenovirus Abovine adenovirus 2AF252854AC_000001Complete genomeBAdV-2
Ovine mastadenovirus Aovine adenovirus 2PX515DQ630755Partial genomeOAdV-2
Ovine mastadenovirus Aovine adenovirus 3PX611DQ630756Partial genomeOAdV-3
Ovine mastadenovirus Aovine adenovirus 47769DQ630757Partial genomeOAdV-4
Ovine mastadenovirus Aovine adenovirus 5SAVDQ630758Partial genomeOAdV-5
Ovine mastadenovirus Bovine adenovirus 1S1DQ630754Partial genomeOAdV-1
Ovine mastadenovirus Covine adenovirus 87508MK518392Complete genomeOAdV-8
Platyrrhini mastadenovirus Atiti monkey adenovirus 1ECC-2011HQ913600NC_020487Complete genomeTMAdV-1
Polar bear mastadenovirus Apolar bear adenovirus 1BK35MF773580NC_040811Complete genomePBAdV-1
Porcine mastadenovirus Aporcine adenovirus 36618AF083132AC_000189Complete genomePAdV-3
Porcine mastadenovirus Aporcine adenovirus 125RL43364Partial genomePAdV-1
Porcine mastadenovirus Bporcine adenovirus 4HNU1MK774519Complete genomePAdV-4
Porcine mastadenovirus Cporcine adenovirus 5AF289262NC_002702Complete genomePAdV-5
Sea lion mastadenovirus ACalifornia sea lion adenovirus 1Zc11-030KJ563221NC_024150Complete genomeCSLAdV-1
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 3ATCC VR-1449AY598782NC_006144Complete genomeSAdV-3
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 46630-ICKP853121Partial genomeSAdV-4
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 6SV-39JQ776547Complete genomeSAdV-6
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 9P-6KP853122Partial genomeSAdV-9
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 10P-7KP853110Partial genomeSAdV-10
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 14E-4382KP853124Partial genomeSAdV-14
Simian mastadenovirus Asimian adenovirus 48AJ75HQ241818Complete genomeSAdV-48
Simian mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 49C24948HQ241819NC_015225Complete genomeSAdV-49
Simian mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 5M-12KP853111Partial genomeSAdV-5
Simian mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 8P-5KP329561Complete genomeSAdV-8
Simian mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus 5018222HQ241820Complete genomeSAdV-50
Simian mastadenovirus Bsimian adenovirus A1139A1139JN880448Complete genomeSAdV-A1139
Simian mastadenovirus Bbaboon adenovirus 1KC693021Complete genomeBaAdV-1
Simian mastadenovirus Bcynamolgus adenovirus 1UK/UK-1/2004KT013209Complete genomeSAdV-cyn1
Simian mastadenovirus Csimian adenovirus 19AA153KP329565NC_028107Complete genomeSAdV-19
Simian mastadenovirus Cbaboon adenovirus 2KC693022Complete genomeBabAdV-2
Simian mastadenovirus Cbaboon adenovirus 3KC693023Complete genomeBabAdV-3
Simian mastadenovirus Dsimian adenovirus 13P-9KP329563NC_028103Complete genomeSAdV-13
Simian mastadenovirus Esimian adenovirus 16C-8KP329564NC_028105Complete genomeSAdV-16
Simian mastadenovirus Fsimian adenovirus 18FJ025931NC_022266Complete genomeSAdV-18
Simian mastadenovirus Fsimian adenovirus 17B-105KP329566Complete genomeSAdV-17
Simian mastadenovirus Gsimian adenovirus 20ATCC VR-541HQ605912NC_020485Complete genomeSAdV-20
Simian mastadenovirus Hsimian adenovirus 5423336 (DM-2014)KM190146NC_025678Complete genomeSAdV-54
Simian mastadenovirus Isimian adenovirus 55WIV19KX505867NC_032105Complete genomeSAdV-55
Skunk mastadenovirus Askunk adenovirus 1PB1KP238322NC_027708Complete genomeSkAdV-1
Squirrel mastadenovirus Ared squirrel adenovirus 1DE/2013/Sciurus vulgaris/2013Pa405-00252KY427939NC_035207Complete genomeSqAdV-1
Tree shrew mastadenovirus Atree shrew adenovirus 1AF258784NC_044936Complete genomeTSAdV-1

Virus names, the choice of exemplar isolates and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus name

Accession number

Virus abbreviation

alpaca adenovirus 1

GQ499375

AlAdV-1

Asian house shrew adenovirus

KY369965

 

bat adenovirus 1 (FBV1)

AB303301

BaAdV-1

black howler monkey adenovirus

MG868939

 

black lemur adenovirus 3

MG574569

 

black-and-white colobus adenovirus 3

JN163996

 

black-and-white ruffed lemur adenovirus

MG574576

 

bowhead whale adenovirus

MT461298

 

cat adenovirus

MF509770

 

Chinese striped hamster adenovirus

KY369962

 

common marmoset adenovirus

MG574581

 

common squirrel monkey adenovirus 3

MG574593

 

cotton-top tamarin adenovirus

JN377906

 

crowned lemur adenovirus

MG574566

 

Daurian ground squirrel adenovirus

KY369963

 

deer mouse adenovirus

JF755423

 

eastern lesser bamboo lemur adenovirus

MG574576

 

Egyptian tomb bat adenovirus

KX434765

 

golden-headed lion tamarin adenovirus

MG574585

 

Gould’s wattled bat adenovirus

MK472072

 

grey-bellied night monkey adenovirus

MG574577

 

hamadryas baboon adenovirus

JN163991

 

harbour porpoise adenovirus 1

KY352473

 

lemur adenovirus

MG574571

 

mandrill adenovirus

KU872872

 

marmoset adenovirus 1.2

MG574580

 

Muntjac deer adenovirus 1

KP221935

 

rabbit adenovirus

JF699046

 

rat adenovirus

KY369966

 

red colobus adenovirus 3

JN163999

 

red-bellied tamarin adenovirus

MG574586

 

red-faced spider monkey adenovirus

MG574578

 

red-fronted lemur adenovirus 2.2

MG574573

 

red-handed tamarin adenovirus 2.2

MG574589

 

reindeer adenovirus 1

MZ507556

ReAdV-1

ring tailed lemur adenovirus

MG574575

 

South American fur seal adenovirus

MF175103

 

Southwest China vole adenovirus

KY369960

 

squirrel adenovirus 2

KP335092

SqAdV-2

squirrel monkey adenovirus 1

MN017133

SMAdV-1

tufted capuchin adenovirus 3

MG574584

 

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.

Many mastadenoviruses have been detected in samples from exotic or wild animals by a DNA polymerase-based consensus PCR (Wellehan et al., 2009), by a IVa2-based consensus PCR (Pantó et al., 2015), or by PCR based on other genes, and no further molecular data are known (Li et al., 2010, Hall et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2017, Lakatos et al., 2017, Argüello-Sánchez et al., 2018, Iglesias-Caballero et al., 2018, Diakoudi et al., 2019, Diffo et al., 2019, Côrte-Real et al., 2020, De Luca et al., 2021). Nonetheless, this minimal information is sufficient to reveal these sequences represent mastadenoviruses, and longer sequences are needed for robust species classification (Hofmann-Sieber et al., 2020). Metagenomic studies of animal tissues or faecal samples usually result only in partial sequences (Geldenhuys et al., 2018, Wu et al., 2018). Nonetheless, there are viruses (e.g., Gould’s wattled bat adenovirus, reindeer adenovirus 1) for which whole genome sequences have been determined from metagenomic sequencing, and these are respectable candidates for classification into novel species (Rogers et al., 2020, Dastjerdi et al., 2021).