Figure 1 (Left) Cryo-EM reconstruction of a human adenovirus 2 particle (Stewart, P.L. et al. (1991). Cell, 67, 145–154). (Centre) Stylized section of a mastadenovirus particle. For a description of the capsid proteins (II, III, IIIa, IV, VI, VIII and IX) and core proteins (V, VII, X and TP), see text. As the structure of the nucleoprotein core has not been established, the polypeptides associated with the DNA are shown in hypothetical locations.
(Adapted from Stewart, P.L. and Burnett, R.M. (1993). Jpn J. Appl. Phys., 32, 1342–1347). (Right) Fowl adenovirus 9 particle negatively stained with uranyl acetate, showing the characteristic double fibers of fowl adenoviruses. (From Gelderblom, H. and Maichle-Lauppe, I. (1982). Arch. Virol.72, 289–298; with permission.) The bar represents 100 nm.
Figure 2 Schematic illustration of the various genome organizations found in members of four adenovirus genera. Black arrows depict genes conserved in every genus, grey arrows show genes present in more than one genus, and coloured arrows show genus-specific genes.
Figure 3 Schematic illustration of the transcription pattern of human adenovirus 2. The parallel lines indicate the linear dsDNA genome of 36 kbp. The dots, broken lines and split arrows indicate the spliced structures of the mRNAs. E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3 and E4 refer to early transcription units. Most (but not all) late genes are in the major late transcription unit which initiates after the E1B and protein IX genes of the r strand (transcribed rightward), and which includes the L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 families of mRNAs. Intermediate genes (of protein IX and protein IVa2) are marked with a star.
(Adapted from Wold, W.S. and Gooding, L.R. (1991). Virology, 184, 1–8.)
Figure 4 Cryo-EM image of ovine atadenovirus 7 at 10.6 Å resolution. The capsid surface is oriented around one of the three-fold axes. Penton complexes are marked in yellow, indicating the approximate bounds of the icosahedral facet. A major capsid protein (LH3) that is a key distinguishing feature of the virus is marked in blue. The bar represents 10 nm.
(Reproduced with permission from Pantelic, R.S. et al. (2008), J. Virol., 82, 7346–7356.)
Figure 5 Phylogenetic tree of adenoviruses based on a distance matrix analysis of hexon amino acid sequences. Primate adenovirus hexons known to have resulted from homologous recombination were excluded from the analysis. Only selected members of primate adenovirus species with more than three members are shown (boxed in grey). The Seqboot (bootstrap), Protdist (categories matrix), Fitch (global rearrangements), and Consense programs of the PHYLIP 3.68 package were used. The tree was generated by unrooted calculation, and is shown with white sturgeon adenovirus 1 chosen as outgroup. Species names are indicated, but for reasons of presentation the word “adenovirus” is abbreviated to AdV followed by a hyphen. Abbreviations after the type numbers of simian adenoviruses: bo, bonobo; ch, chimpanzee; go, gorilla; cy, cynomolgus macaque; rh, rhesus macaque. Bootstrap values higher than 50 (from 100 re-samplings) are shown for every confirmed branching.